ERG SES C 11, Studies on Education
Continuous education has never before been as crucial as it is currently in the era of knowledge-based economy and information society (OECD, 1996). Not only young people but also increasingly more members of society in general are required to regularly and quickly update knowledge and develop new skills. At the same time, more and more individuals work creatively, developing new solutions for problems. In 2009, Strategic framework – Education & Training 2020 set four common European Union objectives to address challenges in education and training systems by 2020: 1) Making lifelong learning and mobility a reality; 2) Improving the quality and efficiency of education and training; 3) Promoting equity, social cohesion, and active citizenship; 4) Enhancing creativity and innovation, including entrepreneurship, at all levels of education and training (European Commission, 2015). Ensuring high learning competencies of individuals underlies all these goals. This situation poses two main challenges for the education system. First is to develop learning competencies which include both positive attitude towards learning and learning skills (Atroszko, 2013). This is related with awakening passion for learning from the early stages of education and the development of metacognitive skills required for effective learning. This will allow for highly efficient and enjoyable life-long learning. The second challenge is to enable healthy learning, that is learning which in itself does not generate additional excessive stress and strain, which in turn lead to less effective learning and worsening in psychosocial functioning, including social isolation, psychological and physical symptoms and lower satisfaction with life and general quality of life. Unhealthy learning is strictly related to the emerging concept of study addiction defined within work addiction framework as a compulsive over-involvement in studying which interferes with functioning in other domains and is detrimental for the individual and/or his/her environment. Initial studies showed that "study addiction" is related to higher levels of stress, lower quality of life, worse health, and worse academic performance (Atroszko, 2015; Atroszko, Andreassen, Griffiths and Pallesen, 2015). This brings significant problem for human capital development as the potential of many talented, determined and diligent students might be at risk.
Taking that into account it is necessary to understand psychological factors related to high learning competencies, as well as those related to unhealthy study attitudes. Recently more and more is known about the latter problem, but the former one still requires more systematic studies. The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship between learning competencies and personality, especially personal values because they are more flexible and open to change (Wade, Liu, Vacek, 2011). This could open possibilities for systematic approaches in fostering values conducive to optimal education process.
It is hypothesized that learning enjoyment and learning self-efficacy are positively related with conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, to experience, emotional stability, internal locus of control, optimism, and importance of such values as achievements, self-direction, universalism, and benevolence and negatively related to pessimism, belief that important others control one’s life, and relatively lesser importance of such value as hedonism (gratification of desires, enjoyment in life, self-indulgence).
It is hypothesized that learning enjoyment and learning related self-efficacy are positively related to learning engagement.
Atroszko, P. A. (2015). The structure of study addiction: selected risk factors and the relationship with stress, stress coping and psychosocial functioning (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. Atroszko, P. A. (2013). Zachowania i postawy studentów związane z uczeniem się a determinanty rozwoju gospodarki opartej na wiedzy In Osiński J. & Pachocka M. (Eds.), Zmieniający się świat. Perspektywa demograficzna, społeczna i gospodarcza (pp. 185–197). Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Szkoły Głównej Handlowej. Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2015). Study addiction - A new area of psychological study: Conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 75–84. European Commission (2015). Draft 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the Strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET2020), Brussels, 26.8.2015 COM (2015) 408 final. Lyubomirsky S. (2008). The how of happiness. A scientific approach to getting the life you want. Penguin. OECD (1996). The Knowledge-Based Economy. Paris, 1996. Wade, M. D., Liu, L. A. and Vacek, J. (2011). Values and Upward Influence Strategies in Transition: Evidence From the Czech Republic. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42 (2), 288–306.
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