04 SES 05 C, Pupil Attitudes in Inclusive Education
In the past decades, there is a rising trend of including children with special educational needs (SEN) into regular schools (Meijer, 2003). Despite this inclusion trend, a number of studies show that more inclusion does not per se lead to more social contacts or friendships between people without a disability and people with a disability (e.g., Bossaert, Colpin, Pijl, & Petry, 2012). According to Antonak and Lineveh (2000), full inclusion of people with a disability is hindered because of the negative attitudes towards them held by people without disability. Thus, changing the attitudes of typically developing students towards students with a disability might be an important factor in ensuring a successful inclusion of students with SEN into regular schools.
In this study, we try to change the implicit and explicit attitudes of students, in the first year of secondary school (12 to 13 years old), towards their peers with SEN. We do this by implementing a disability awareness program. In previous studies, it was found that following a disability awareness program had a positive effect on the explicit attitudes of people without a disability towards people with a disability (e.g. Krahé & Altwasser, 2006; Moore & Nettelbeck, 2013; Rillotta & Nettelbeck, 2007). In their study Rillota and Nettelbeck (2007) also found that following a disability awareness training could have an effect on attitudes that was still present after several years. Thus far, there is no research on the effect of a disability awareness training on implicit attitudes. However, Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann and Banaji (2009) found that implicit attitudes are a better predictor of behavior than explicit attitudes when it concerns socially sensitive topics. Therefore, in this study we will investigate if implicit attitudes change together with explicit attitudes after following a disability awareness program.
With this study, we will try to answer the following questions: 1) Does following a disability awareness program effects typically developing students’ implicit attitudes towards their peers with SEN? 2) Is there an effect on the explicit attitudes towards students with SEN of typically developing students after following a disability awareness program? 3) Is this effect on the implicit and explicit attitudes still present after two to three months?
Antonak, R. F., & Livneh, H. (2000). Measurement of attitudes towards persons with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 22(5), 211–224. doi:10.1080/096382800296782 Bossaert, G., Colpin, H., Pijl, S. J., & Petry, K. (2012). Loneliness among students with special educational needs in mainstream seventh grade. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 1888–1897. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.05.010 Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464–1480. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the implicit association test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity, 97(1), 17–41. doi:10.1037/a0015575 Karpinski, A., & Hilton, J. L. (2001). Attitudes and the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 774–778. doi:10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.524 Krahé, B., & Altwasser, C. (2006). Changing negative attitudes towards persons with physical disabilities: An experimental intervention. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16(1), 59–69. doi:10.1002/casp.849 Meijer, C. J. W. (2003). Special needs education across Europe. Middelfart, Denmark: European Agency for Development in special Needs Education. Moore, D., & Nettelbeck, T. (2013). Effects of short-term disability awareness training on attitudes of adolescents schoolboys toward persons with a disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 38(3), 223–231. doi:10.3109/13668250.2013.790532 Rillotta, F., & Nettelbeck, T. (2007). Effects of an awareness program on attitudes of students without an intellectual disability towards persons with an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 32(1), 19–27. doi:10.1080/13668250701194042 Rosenbaum, P. L., Armstrong, R. W., & King, S. M. (1986). Children's attitudes toward disabled peers: A self-report measure. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11(4), 517–530. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/11.4.517
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