11 SES 10 A, Teaching Strategies and Learning Quality
Many researchers believe that start of schooling is a crucial period for children, their cognitive and social development. Class or school composition have a significant effect on progress and achievement in elementary school (e.g. McLean et al., 2016). Some authors focused on the effect of non-academic composition characteristics such as average socio-economic status or proportion of immigrants within class (school) (Van der Slik, Driessen & De Bot, 2006; Perry & McConney, 2010). Other examined the effect of averaged class or school achievements or class academic homogeneity on individual performance and progress (Hanushek et al., 2003; Hoffer, 1992).
It has been shown that averaged class or school achievements have the positive effect on learning progress or individual achievements (e.g. Zimmer & Toma, 2000). This effect has been confirmed in elementary school (McLean et al., 2016 ), in secondary and high school as well (Carman & Zhang,2012; De Fraine et al., 2003; Ding & Lehrer, 2007).
Findings about the effect of classroom homogeneity on academic progress are inconsistent. There are some evidences that students’ progress in academically homogeneous classes may be higher than in heterogeneous classes (Ding, Lehrer, 2007). At the same time, other authors do not confirm significance of this effect (e.g. Kiss, 2013; Hanushek et al., 2003). The effect of class homogeneity is predominantly estimated in secondary school (Kaur, 2016; Lavy, Silva,& Weinhardt, 2012). There are fewer studies focused on estimation this effect in elementary school (e.g. Burns & Mason, 2002).
It has been also demonstrated that effect of class composition on academic progress varies for students with different abilities. There is evidence that peers achievements and homogeneity of class have the effect on progress of students with high ability only (Hoffer, 1992; Ding, Lehler, 2007).
The overarching goal of our study is to estimate the effect of class average achievements and homogeneity on academic progress during the first year of schooling. We attempt both to identify effect of class composition on academic progress and ascertain whether this effect is generalizable across different groups of students and subjects.
Burns, R. B., & Mason, D. A. (2002). Class composition and student achievement in elementary schools. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 207-233. Carman, K. G., & Zhang, L. (2012). Classroom peer effects and academic achievement: Evidence from a Chinese middle school. China Economic Review, 23(2), 223-237 De Fraine, B., Van Damme, J., Van Landeghem, G., Opdenakker, M. C., & Onghena, P. (2003). The effect of schools and classes on language achievement. British educational research journal, 29(6), 841-859. Ding, W., & Lehrer, S. F. (2007). Do peers affect student achievement in China's secondary schools?. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(2), 300-312. Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Markman, J. M., & Rivkin, S. G. (2003). Does peer ability affect student achievement?. Journal of applied econometrics, 18(5), 527-544. Hoffer, T. B. (1992). Middle school ability grouping and student achievement in science and mathematics. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 14(3), 205-227. Kaur, P. S. (2016). Mathematics for all: the effects of heterogeneous grouping and community circles on student achievement and attitude (Doctoral dissertation, San Francisco State University). Kiss, D. (2013). The impact of peer achievement and peer heterogeneity on own achievement growth: Evidence from school transitions. Economics of Education Review, 37, 58-65. Lavy, V., Silva, O., & Weinhardt, F. (2012). The good, the bad, and the average: Evidence on ability peer effects in schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 30(2), 367-414. McLean, L., Sparapani, N., Toste, J.R., McDonald Connor, C. (2016). Classroom quality as a predictor of first graders' time in non-instructional activities and literacy achievement, Journal of School Psychology, 56, 45-58. Perry, L. B., & McConney, A. (2010). Does the SES of the school matter? An examination of socioeconomic status and student achievement using PISA 2003. Teachers College Record, 112(4), 1137-1162. Schunck, R. (2016). Cluster Size and Aggregated Level 2 Variables in Multilevel Models. A Cautionary Note. Methods, data, analyses: a journal for quantitative methods and survey methodology (mda), 10(1), 97-108. Van der Slik, F. W., Driessen, G. W., & De Bot, K. L. (2006). Ethnic and socioeconomic class composition and language proficiency: a longitudinal multilevel examination in Dutch elementary schools. European sociological review, 22(3), 293-308. Zimmer, R. W., & Toma, E. F. (2000). Peer effects in private and public schools across countries. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 75-92
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