28 SES 02 A, Europeanization of education: Different Perspectives
The emergence of a Europeanisation process in education is currently 'a distinctive spatial, political, and scientific process' (Grek & Lawn, 2009, p. 52), which influences our way of thinking about teachers and teacher education. This paper, conducted within the framework of the European Doctorate in Teacher Education (EDiTE), aims to analyse the influence of Europeanisation in education governance, exploring contemporary teacher education reforms in three European countries, namely Austria, Greece and Hungary. All three countries belong to the same sphere of influence under the EU, although the extent to which reforms in teacher education resonate with European policy recommendations differs significantly among them. Each country case illustrates uniquely how actors in macro and micro organisational levels interact within certain institutional platforms, such as reforms related to teacher education, enabling or hindering change. The field of teacher education receives particular attention, since compelling evidence that teachers are the most important factor influencing student performance led to a resurgence of interest on teachers and teacher education and initiated reforms in several countries around Europe (Steger, 2014; Vidovic & Domovic, 2013). To examine the relevance of teacher education reforms with European developments, the following fundamental teacher policy concepts developed through the OMC are considered: (a) the creation of a continuum of teacher professional development, meaning an overarching unity between initial teacher education, induction and continuing professional development; (b) the definition and use of teacher competences; and (c) the support of teacher educators (Steger, 2014, pp. 338-342).
Acknowledging the complexity of policy flows, the study examines perspectives of various actors in different levels of education governance, adopting an exploratory and descriptive case study design (Yin, 2009). Firstly, the paper presents a framework for mapping the process of Europeanisation in teacher policy and teacher education, considering relevant theories and interviews with international policy experts from the European Commission. The framework is then employed in each of the country cases, focusing on the moment when a specific reform related to teacher education took place in the respective country. For Austria this means the 'Teacher Education New' launched in 2013, for Greece the (re-)introduction of the 'Certificate for Pedagogical and Teaching Competence' in 2010, and for Hungary the restoration of undivided initial teacher education in 2012 and the implementation of the new system of teacher career path in 2013. Employing content analysis of official policy documents and interviews with national policy experts and teacher educators, the process of policy implementation is described, revealing the main actors, their way of interaction, and relevance with European developments. Conclusions are finally drawn with regard to the level of misfit between European and domestic levels, the influence of European instruments, the interaction among the transnational and local actors, and the extent to which institutional platforms, such as teacher education reforms, enable international influences to penetrate national systems.
Moving beyond linear models of policy implementation, it is argued that Europeanisation plays a significant role in initiating and sustaining change through subtle mechanisms of downloading and uploading policies and practices between different levels of governance (European, regional, national, sub-national, institutional). Europeanisation offers a new analytical language that moves beyond national borders and takes complexity seriously, revealing a multitude of actors, instruments, and institutional platforms, and thus, broadening our scope of education governance. Studying Europeanisation in the specific field of teacher education also helps us to better understand the national traits of what it means to teach in a particular country, contributing to the discussion of what makes a ‘European teacher’ (Schratz, 2014).
Grek S. & Lawn, M. (2009). A Short History of Europeanizing Education: The New Political Work of Calculating the Future. European Education, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 32-54. Schratz, M. (2014). The European Teacher: Transnational Perspectives in Teacher Education Policy and Practice. CEPS Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 11-26 Steger, C. (2014). Review and analysis of the EU teacher-related policies and activities. European Journal of Education, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 332-347. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Fourth Edition. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Vidovic, V. V. & Domovic, V. (2013). Teachers in Europe – Main Trends, Issues and Challenges. Croatian Journal of Education, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 219-250.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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