ERG SES G 01, Inclusive Education
Inclusive Education and Education for All (EFA) is an issue of current relevance and unresolved globally. Its ideological bases and key principles have been established through numerous conventions and forums organized by important international organizations in the field of education and human rights. The reports and agreements arising from these meetings have been constituted in a legislative framework of reference on educational inclusion for many countries at global level.
In Spain the legislation on education for people with disabilities, attention to diversity and inclusion has evolved since the years 70 of the twentieth century to the present, through educational models based on segregation, integration and finally inclusion. Although there is a broad consensus on quality education as a fundamental human right and as a basis for a fairer society (Blanco, 2010), multiple international research and declarations such as Incheon (UNESCO 2015) point out that there is a long way to reach the objectives of a quality Inclusive Education that curbs the processes of educational and social exclusion. UNESCO defines Inclusive Education as
a process of strengthening the capacity of the education system to reach out to all learners and can thus be understood as a key strategy to achieve EFA. As an overall principle, it should guide all education policies and practices, starting from the fact that education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just and equal society. (2009, pp 8)
The Inclusive Education as a process to learn to live with human differences (López, 2011), aims to respond to the diversity of students, for which it focuses on the transformation of educational systems and schools to be able to respond to the diversity of student learning needs that are the result of their social and cultural origin and of their individual characteristics (UNESCO, 2008).
Inclusion is a construct that appears polysemic, dilemma related and controversial. In a broad sense, we can say that it is a systematic, sustained and systemic process that seeks the presence, participation and learning of all students. The inclusion alludes to the constant vigilance necessary to counteract the forces of exclusion in education, in society and in ourselves. (Ainscow, Booth & Dyson, 2006; Echeita, 2006; Nutbrown et. Al, 2013, Slee, 2012)
The multiple interpretations of the term inclusion and the different perceptions of the differences have provoked diverse and contradictory policies, which ultimately direct action plans carried out in the school and in the classrooms, where exclusion processes are reproduced and new generated.
From this perspective, the objective of this work is to analyse the evolution of Spanish educational policies in the field of education as a right, inclusion and attention to diversity since the 1970s to the present day. Likewise, it also seeks to undertake a study of the main international agreements and declarations in which the right to inclusive education with quality for all has been recognised, and the frameworks of action have been established to make them effective.
The present study has been carried out through a documentary research. On the one hand, a systematic review has been carried out of the key reports, declarations and agreements of the leading international organizations in the field of education, rights and disability. The search for documents has been carried out around the terms: recognition of the right to education, Inclusive Education, Education for All, educational principles of inclusion, quality and equity. For that purpose, the web pages of these organizations UNESCO, UNICEF and UN have been consulted. On the other hand, a search, systematic review and analysis of Spanish legislation has been carried out from 1970 to the present day in terms of: right to education; rights and education of persons with disabilities; educational principles in educational policies at national level (normalization, inclusion, equity and quality); integration and educational inclusion processes; Special Educational Needs (SEN) and measures of attention to diversity. The sources that have been used have been laws and normative documents collected on the website of the Spanish Ministry of Education Science and Sport and the Spanish Official Bulletin (B.O.E.).
Of the International reports and declarations on education, rights, disability and SEN, we can highlight the establishment and reaffirmation of an international movement for Education for All, initiated in Jotien 1990. Despite having clear frameworks of action to carry out the objectives of Education for All under the principles of inclusion, quality and equity, it is reported that achievements have been achieved at different levels and unevenly according to countries and regions of the world, leaving a long way to go and many aspects to improve in educational policies. In Spain the legislation on inclusive education has evolved from the years 70 to the present day. In the evolution of the Spanish legal framework we can identify three periods from the beginning of the integrative process to the current process towards the inclusion. The first was characterized by policies of educational integration covering from the recognition of the right of all citizens to education in the Spanish Constitution of 1978 until the end of the 80s of the twentieth century. The second stage begins with the educational reform that is established by the Law of General Educational (LOGSE) of 1990, committed to the principles of normalization and integration, and introduces the concept of Special Educational Needs. The 90s is the period where the first steps towards educational inclusion are taken. In the 21st century begins the last stage characterized by the ups and downs in educational policies that will lead to setbacks, achievements and difficulties on the way to educational inclusion.
Ainscow, M., Booth, T. & Dyson, A. (2006): Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion. Nueva York: Routledge. Ainscow, M. & Echeita, G. (2011) La Educación inclusiva como derecho. Marco de referencia y pautas de acción para el desarrollo de una revolución pendiente. Tejuelo nº 12, pp. 26-46. Consulted in: https://repositorio.uam.es/bitstream/handle/10486/661330/educacion_echeita_TEJUELO_2011.pdf?sequence=1. BLANCO, R. (Coord.) (2010) El derecho de todos a una educación de calidad. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva 4(2),25-153. Duk, C. (fecha no disponible): El enfoque de la educación inclusiva. Consulted in: http://observatorioperu.com/2013/Mayo/Educacion%20Inclusiva%208.pdf. Echeita, G. (2006). Educación para la inclusión. Educación sin exclusiones.Madrid: Narcea. López, M. (2011). Barreras que impiden la escuela inclusiva y algunas estrategias para construir una escuela sin exclusiones. Innovación Educativa, n.º 21, pp. 37-54 Nutbrown, C., Clough, P., & Atherton, F. (2013). Inclusion in the early years. London: SAGE. Slee, R. (2012). La escuela extraordinaria. Exclusión, escolarización y educación inclusiva (The Irregular School: Exclusion, Schooling and Inclusive Education). Madrid. Ediciones Morata. UNESCO (2008) La Educación Inclusiva: El camino hacia el futuro. (Inclusive Education: The Way to the Future) Conclusiones y recomendaciones de la 48ª Reunión de la Conferencia Internacional de Educación (CIE). Ginebra: UNESCO Online document: www.ibe.unesco.org/.../user.../CONFINTED_48_Inf_2__Spanish.pdf -(2009). Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. París: UNESCO -2015. Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action for the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure Inclusive an Equitable Quality Education and Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All. Online document: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002456/245656e.pdf
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