02 SES 07 B, Transferable Competences and Identity Transformation
Key competences are becoming increasingly important for coping with inclusion and the requirements of change in today's rapidly changing world of business and technology. In France, following a debate between the social partners in the 1970s concerning the notion of competences in connection with human resource development and performance evaluation, the move towards the use of a practice-based concept of competences was effectively launched during the 1980s (Delamare Le Deist & Winterton, 2005; Connac & CEGOSS, 1985). At the beginning of this period, the Ministry of education introduced its own VET qualification referential standards connected with the targeted occupational profiles in terms of three descriptors of competences: capacities, know-how competences and associated knowledge. In connection with these competence-based VET referential standards, the labour market authorities created in 1993 the “Operational Repertory of Trades and Occupations (ROME - Répertoire Opérationnel des Métiers et des emplois)” which underwent further enrichment and improvements during the last decades (Dif, 2010). However, the main developments and reforms towards the use and generalisation of inclusive key competences within the whole educational and training system were basically the result of two major impulses: the conceptual framework of the programme “DeSeCo” initiated by the OECD in 1997 (Rychen & Salganik, 2003) and the EU reference framework defining eight key competences for lifelong learning (EU recommendation 2006/962/EC). These impulses led to undertaking further actions and reforms for the promotion of more inclusive key competence development programmes such as: (a)-the establishment by the Ministry of education (via the Decree of 11 July 2006) of a common ground key-competences programme within initial compulsory education, which was recently reformed and extended for implementation starting from this academic year 2017/2018 (Decree of 31 March 2015: B.O., 2015); (b)-the introduction of a “framework programme for sustainable integration within the labour market through access to key-competences” of mainly vulnerable people by the Ministry of labour in 2008; (c)-the establishment of a “referential standards framework for professionally situated competences (CCSP - Référentiel des Compétences Clés en Situation Professionnelle) in 2006 by the “National Anti-Illiteracy Agency” (ANLCI, 2009).
This paper is an investigation into the development of key competence programmes/policy instruments and their inclusive role of young and adult people (including disadvantaged people) within the French initial and continuing education system.
The adopted investigation methodology is mainly based on recent scientific desk research, documentation and data published by the ministries of education and labour and other involved stakeholders connected with the subject of this paper. This research investigation is also completed by a set of semi-directive interviews conducted with experts and representatives of different stakeholders involved in the development of inclusive key competences within the educational and training system and the labour market inclusion institutions. The outcome of the research investigation is presented through the following main sections: (a)-background overview of main developments of key-competences and their inclusive role; (b)-main mechanisms and policy instruments facilitating access to inclusive key competences; (c)-institutional setting and roles of main involved stakeholders; (d)-conclusions and recommendations for future developments.
One of the main primary outcomes of the this investigation shows that the key competences are generally observed to be effectively more inclusive when they are implemented through work-based learning programmes (as it is the case in apprenticeship-type alternating programmes) than in those of the school-based system (especially in its general education segment).
- ANLCI (2009): “le référentiel des compétences clés en situation professionnelle (CCSP)”, Agence Nationale de Lutte Contre l’Illettrisme (ANLCI), mars 2009, http://www.anlci.gouv.fr/Mediatheque/Entreprises/Entreprise/Referentiel-des-competences-cles-en-situation-professionnelle-RCCSP. - B.O. (2015): “Socle commun de connaissance, de compétences et de culture”, Bulletin Officiel (B.O.) n°17 du 23 avril 2015. - CEDEFOP (2016): “Key competence in vocational education and training- France”, Centre Inffo, Cedefop ReferNet France, 2016. - Connac, Y. & la CEGOSS (1985): “La bataille des compétences: l’éducation professionnelle permanente au cœur de la stratégie de l’entreprise”, Editions Hommes et Techniques, Paris. - Coulet, J.-C.(2016): “Les notions de compétence et de compétences clés : l’éclairage d’un modèle théorique fondé sur l’analyse de l’activité”, http://journals.openedition.org/activites/2745. - Delamare Le Deist, F. and Winterton, J (2005): “Waht is comptence?”, In Human Ressource Development International, Vol.8, n°.1, pp.27-26, March 2005. - DIESENET-CRI (2005): “Profil Clé: Comment évaluer les compétences clés?”, CRI (Centre, Recherche, Innovations) –Greta Puy en Velay, novembre 2005, http://diesenet.conseil-recherche-innovation.net/IMG/pdf/Profil-cle.pdf - Dif, M. (2010): “EQF effect on national and sectoral qualification processes”, in L. Deitmer, M.-L. Stenström and S. Manning (Eds): Proceedings of the ECER-VETNET Conference 2010 -"Education and Cultural Change", Helsinki (25 to 27 August 2010), http://www.b.shuttle.de/wifo/vetnet/ecer10.htm - EU (2006): “Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European parliament and council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning”, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:394:0010:0018:fr:PDF. - OECD (2015): “Vers un système d’éducation plus inclusif en France? Point d’étape sur les enjeux en matière d’égalité du système d’éducation et sur les réformes en cours “, OCDE, juillet 2015. - Rychen, D. S. and Salganik, L. H. (2003): “Highlights from the OECD Project Definition and Selection Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations (DeSeCo)”, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 21-25, 2003).
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