02 SES 14 B, Guidance and Mentoring in VET
General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework
There is a lack of previous research on what instructors in work life thinks about the education of health care workers. In this project, I will look closer how instructors in nursing homes perceives and takes responsibility in the training of the two first years of vocational education (VET students) in health care workers. The students must get relevant work life practice with an opportunity of getting familiar with their selected occupations. Then instructors might play a crucial role in the training of students. The evaluation of subject PTF (prosjekt til fordypning) where the students are in work place practice, shows that there is potential of improvement (Hiim, 2013b)How is the cooperation between instructors, teachers and students to give an education with a practice that increase a high-quality education in the occupation? Instructors have a long time in the profession and have expert knowledge in their field. They have achieved holistic knowledge through many practical experiences. It should be an experienced instructor that allows for conversation and reflection on specific experiences from different intentions with the student. It will give the student a repertoire of practice experience in the development of professional knowledge (Schön, 1987).
According to Schön (Schön, 1987) professional knowledge in skills consist of a complex interaction of skills along with our senses that creates a whole. In professional practice knowledge is displayed in action and how to reflect in the action. In order of students to get knowledge, the reflection is important in the guidance. Basically, the guidance should be what the students did, thought and felt from real experiences in practice. An instructor with an expert level will be able to recognize the student's experiences and put words on them. The critical thinking depends on reflection and the ability to achieve profound knowledge. Reflect with practice instructor and gain a professional understanding of the experiences. Active experimentation where the student uses the new understanding to make decisions and actions in practice. Specific experience where the student stands open and without prejudices for new situations and which can give new experiences (Kolb, 1984) (Illeris, 2006).
Evaluation of curriculum `Kunnskapsløftet` shows the way the training is organized does not meet the need for professional specialization (Dahl, Bruland, Mordal & Aaslid, 2012).
Praksisbasert yrkesutdanning, hvordan utvikle relevant yrkesutdanning for elever og arbeidsliv (Praktice based vocational education, (Hiim, 2013a) was an action research project where researchers and vocational teachers have colloborated. Results that are interesting in this context are the lack of resources for network development and collaborating with work life.
The NIFU-report Kompetanseutvikling blant yrkesfaglærere (Competence development among vocational teachers) from 2016 it emerged that vocational teachers want more time for the students and subject-specific competence development. They also point at challenges with teaching in subjects they are not specialized in and school books are slightly updated (Aamodt, Carlsten, Caspersen, Grøgaard & Røsdal, 2016).
In the future, we will have a great need for qualified professionals in the community. Knowing the work life need for competence is important for the education in the school. There is a need for collaboration so that students get a comprehensive education in which they see the connection between theory and practice. The research question is:
How can practice instructors help students to develop professional knowledge in skills through reflection and guidance?
Methods/Methodology This project will provide new knowledge about how vocational education can be comprehensive and meaningful for the students. There is little recent knowledge of how work life thinks vocational education should be organized to make the students acquire professional knowledge. I have conducted focus group interviews of experienced practice instructors at three nursing homes and their experience in educating VET students. The committee was made by nurses at the hospital, who had a long experience in supervising students. By choosing a semi-structured interview guide with the topic I wanted the informants to talk about could I gave more fluency in the interviews. I saw the need to list keywords along the way, so I would not interrupt and miss the necessary information by breaking their mindset (Ryen, 2002, s. 99). Through the group discussions they reflect on and describe experiences. It may also create improvement and change because their training and students was different organized at the various departments. It was already apparent during the interviews that they showed interest in how the various organized work life training. The empirical data has been transcribed, and further analysis and categorization is in progress.
Preliminary results and expected outcomes Analysis of the data and mapping are not finished, but the preliminary analyses give a reason to believe that instructors emphasizes differently from vocational teachers on what they see as important for VET students to learn. According to instructors, the preparations before placement periods is important to give VET students interpersonal understanding. The instructors mean that the teachers are too over hanged in procedures the VET students must learn in work life practice. According to instructors, they will learn the procedures gradually and students will be occupied by what they have been told by teachers to practice/learn I practice. Instead, instructors want them to learn through experiences by being open to new situations. Through practical actions as reflected during and afterwards, is the best way to learn what the profession is about. Teachers want the students to have a permanent instructor at the nursing home as opposed to instructors who want to give the students opportunities by determining at the morning meeting which instructor could give them a new experience. The instructors believe, it is important that the students get several work life experiences and then theoretical knowledge in school. It will be in line with Kolb's experience learning by giving the student a new experience of being open and present in concrete action. By the fact that they reflect academically on the action along the way and afterwards with one will be able to give the students a holistic understanding (Schön, 1987) (Dreyfus et al., 1988). Furthermore, they are based on these experiences at school and link them to theory and thus gain a deeper understanding. This gives a new basis for new actions with a new and broader understanding of the student. They think cooperation with teachers is important in the training of VET students to develop occupational quality.
Dahl, T., Bruland, T., Mordal, S. & Aaslid, B. E. (2012). På de samme stier som før : kunnskapsløftet i fag- og yrkesopplæringen. Trondheim: SINTEF, Teknologi og samfunn, Teknologiledelse. Hentet fra https://www.udir.no/Upload/Rapporter/2012/P%C3%A5 samme stier.pdf?epslanguage=no Dreyfus, H. L., Dreyfus, S. E. & Athanasiou, T. (1988). Mind over machine : the power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer (Paperback ed. utg.). New York: Free Press. Hiim, H. (2013a). Praksisbasert yrkesutdanning : hvordan utvikle relevant yrkesutdanning for elever og arbeidsliv? Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk. Hiim, H. (2013b). Praksisbasert yrkesutdanning: hvordan utvikle relevant yrkesutdanning for elever og arbeidsliv? Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk. Illeris, K. (2006). Læring. Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitetsforl. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning : experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall. Ryen, A. (2002). Det kvalitative intervjuet: fra vitenskapsteori til feltarbeid. Bergen: Fagbokforl. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass. Aamodt, P. O., Carlsten, T. C., Caspersen, J., Grøgaard, J. B. & Røsdal, T. (2016). Kompetanseutvikling blant yrkesfaglærere: En undersøkelse basert på OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS): NIFU.
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