28 SES 09 A, Teaching Under Stress
The narratives related to the teaching profession “crisis” widely vary across national boundaries. If in France the public debate remains strongly focused on the crisis in teacher recruitment (Brisard & Mallet, 2004), in England, the debate is as much centred upon retention as upon the loss of attractiveness of the teaching profession (see e.g. DfE 2019). Teacher-related policies and reform trajectories also follow distinct paths in the two countries. In France, teacher policy reforms have been historically centred on initial teacher training, and some dispersed policies aiming to improve the attractiveness of the career are underway (e.g. anticipated recruitment at the end of a bachelor degree, retraining of teaching assistants, premiums for teachers in disadvantaged schools). Meanwhile, England has adopted over the past two decades a larger spectrum of teacher-related reforms touching upon initial teacher training, modes of certification and recruitment, and career pathways and employment conditions (Childs & Menter 2013; Jones 2016).
Our presentation attempts to analyse the interplay between the trajectories of teacher-focused reforms in France and England and the very nature of the ongoing flexibilisation of teacher recruitment processes and working conditions. Theoretically, our analysis is anchored in the framework of work and employment sociology, drawing upon Kalleberg’ work (2009; 2018) on the flexibilisation and polarization of employment relationships on the one hand, and on the literature on state transformation and changing modes of regulation of professions (Bezes et al 2011) on the other. We hypothesise that teacher-centred reform trajectories in England, resting on multiple forms of flexibilisation (training, recruitment, employment, career), can be interpreted as a move towards a liberal deregulation of the labour market for teachers. By contrast, in France, the upholding and reinforcement of existing institutional settings that regulate teachers’ careers (recruitment through concours, a central model of initial teacher training, and a centralised system of teacher allocation to schools), coupled with the recruitment crisis, have led to a polarization of teacher supply and recruitment as well as working conditions.
We use national census data collected under the authority of the ministries of education in each country as our primary source of material with a focus on lower and upper secondary education (the BSA (Base Statistiques des Agents) in France for the years 2008-2017, and the SWC (School Workforce Census) in England for the years 2010-2016). In order to capture the unravelling of standards/traditional employment relationships (full time work, civil servant status or long term contracts, etc.) and the rise of non-standard/non-traditional employment relationships (part-time work, short-terms contracts [Kalleberg, 2000]), we focus on the case of non-statured teachers in France (e.g “contractuels”) and on “unqualified teachers” and “supply teachers” in England. We conduct two types of analysis. First, multi-level growth models (Tasca & al., 2009) are used in order to document the significance and extent of emerging trends and to capture their structure and form. Secondly, sequence analyses (Abbott, 1995; Abbott & Tsay, 2000) are used in order to capture teachers’ employment and work trajectories within each education system.
Our preliminary results suggest that the extent of the flexibilisation of the teaching workforce appears to be relatively similar in both countries (up to 5% over the last ten years, a trend that is even more prominent at the lower secondary level). Nevertheless, the structure and form of flexibilisation appears to clearly differ between the two countries. In France, the “contractuels” are more strongly represented in the least attractive academies (administrative regions for schools), and in those disciplines where there is a noticeable shortage of certified teachers, which gives credit to the dualisation and polarization hypothesis. Flexibilization in England, by contrast, is not only at play in a geographical or by shortage-subject way, centred upon teachers with “standard/traditional” employment (QTS teachers with permanent contracts). It is equally present in high performing schools, who opt for non-standard/non-traditional employees (non-QTS teachers, non-permanent teachers). These establishments are notably those that have opted to become academies, thus avoiding regulative constraints imposed by local authorities and central government. Flexibilisation seems to take root at different levels within the school system, participating also in the fragmentation in supply of education.
Bezes, P., Demazière, D., Le Bianic, T., Paradeise, C., Normand, R., Benamouzig, D., Pierru, F., & Evetts ,J. (2011). New Public Management et professions dans l’État : au-delà des oppositions, quelles recompositions ? Sociologie du Travail, 53(3), 293-348. Brisard, E., & Mallet, R. (2004). Évolution du professionnalisme enseignant et contextes culturels: Le cas du second degré en Angleterre, Écosse et France. Recherche & formation, 45(45), 131-149. Childs, A. & Menter, I. (2013) Teacher Education in 21st century England. A case study in neoliberal public policy. Revista Española de Educación Comparada, 22 (2013), 93-116 DfE (2019) Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy. London: UK available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/teacher-recruitment-and-retention-strategy (accessed 30.01.2019) Jones, K. (2016) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present. UK: Polity press. Second edition Kalleberg, A.M. (2000). Non-standard employment relations: part-time, temporary and contract work. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 341-365. Kalleberg, A.M. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74, 1-22. Kalleberg, A.M. (2018). Precarious lives: job insecurity and well-being in rich democracies. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.