04 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
My research explores how math teachers’ beliefs, choices of content and methods, can support communication patterns in the classroom that ensures students receive the appropriate support when learning difficulties arise. My central research question is: how are the math teacher’s pedagogical choices a co-creator of an inclusive or an exclusive learning culture?
My approach to learning difficulties is a constructivist one. Mathematics is here is viewed as a life skill, as stressed in the concept of mathematical literacy (Lindenskov 2006). This means that learning difficulties are not (simply) a matter of developmental disorder inherent within the individual, but (also) something created in a social context. I am looking at the articulated and unarticulated standards for how we 'do school', and the ways in which teachers and students categorize themselves and each other. Being able to challenge the unspoken understanding of a culture of learning requires a focus on how to communicate a particular order forward, and thus how to create a special classification of what is, respectively, normal and abnormal (Hall 1997; Bourdieu 1997).
Both the perception of 'real mathematics' and the categories the teacher uses, will affect which students are assessed to have special educational needs and how that teaching should be organized. The inclusive perspective means that the math teacher must shift focus from the individual child to the relationship between the individual and the community so that both student and school become the subject of change and development (Farrell 2004). To understand mathematical difficulties one must look at the affective and social context students enter. This perspective allows us to see how, in some cases, problems are”caused by the curriculum, the teacher or the school as much as by the learner. In such cases, the ‘medical’ or ‘deficit’ model of special educational needs fails, because it looks for solutions in the wrong place” (Ernest 2011:24).
Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D., Wiliam, D., King's College, L. S. o. E., et al. (1997) Effective teachers of numeracy : Final report : Report of a study carried out for the teacher training agency 1995-96 by the school of education. London: King's College. Black, L. (2004) Differential participation in whole-class discussions and the construction of marginalised identities. The Journal of Educational Enquiry - LA English, 5(1) Bourdieu, P. (1997) Af praktiske grunde. Omkring teorien om menneskelig handlen. Hans Reitzels Forlag Bourdieu, P. and Waquant, Loïc J.D. (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishers Ltd.: Cambridge Carrington, S. (1999) Inclusion needs a different school culture. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 257-268. Ernest, P. (2011) Mathematics and Special Educational Needs: Theories of mathematical ability and effective types of intervention with low and high attainers in mathematics. Lambert Academic Publishing Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (2006) Classroom management as a field of inquiry. In C. M. Evertson, & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Farrell, P. (2004) “School Psychologists: Making Inclusion a Reality for All.” School Psychology International; 25;5 Flyvbjerg, B. (1991) Rationalitet og magt - bind 1, Akademisk Forlag A/S Hall, S. (1997) ”The spectacle of the other’” i Hall, Stuart (red.): Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. SAGE Publications: London Lindenskov, L. (2006) Matematikvanskeligheder i inkluderende undervisning for børn, unge og voksne. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, 11 (4), 65-95. Patrick, H., Turner, J. C., Meyer, D. K., & Midgley, C. (2003) How teachers establish psychologicalenvironments during the first days of school: Associations with avoidance in mathematics. Teachers College Record, 105(8), 1521-1558. Skidmore, D. (2004) Inclusion – the dynamic of school development. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
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