22 SES 09 C, Policy, Management and Governance in Higher Education
The presentation explores the organisational effects of the standardising processes of higher education at teacher level; that is the performative effects of the new ministerial orders and curricula shaped in accordance with the European reform processes.
Bologna is possibly one of the most extensive examples of policy transfer in higher education (Dale & Robertson 2012; Steiner-Khamsi 2004, 2012a,b). This policy borrowing process has altered what it means to talk about knowledge and educational organisation and through this what is sayable and doable education wise (Gornitzka 2005; Keeling 2004; Nóvoa & Lawn 2002; Henckel & Wright 2008). The new imaginative regimes of world-wide attractiveness and competitiveness desired in the official documents of the Bologna have given rise to a certain marketisation and commodification of higher education. The flows of educational policies and practices in higher education reform are simply named consumerist mechanisms by Naidoo (2003). These mechanisms are displayed through the ambition of mobility and though the massive curricula reform that Bologna has given rise to throughout Europe and beyond.
The curricula reforms all include a shift from a semestrial time frame structure to a modular structure in which each module constitutes a learning unit in itself and must be completed by a test. It also implicates a shift from curricula directed towards the student’s development throughout the education to curricula directed towards learning outcomes. The learning outcomes relate to the so called qualification frameworks (framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area 2005 and The European Qualification Framework for Lifelong Learning 2008) . The core of the EQF concerns eight reference levels describing what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process; the so called 'learning outcomes' which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence.
As in the case of the curricular changes mentioned above, the Bologna process has transformed the higher education architectures through a profound educational standardisation that has been criticized for ‘production lining’ the educations leading to instrumental predictability and thereby excluding innovation and entrepreneurship to the margins (Nielsen & Sarauw 2012). Here ‘standard’ is coined as a specification or model for practice securing that the ‘production’ can be carried out independently of time and place. Hence a standard is the quintessence of iteration and reproduction. However, when standards are used as a steering technology as in the case of Bologna it may create a gap between the standard’s ideal premises and the concrete situation (Nissen 2012). In this presentation this will be illustrated through the frictions between the ideal premises of European educational harmonisation and the non-reproducible situatedness, historical embeddedness, of the educations.
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