26 SES 06 A, Engagement, Shadowing and Action Research
While self-report studies have been used and discussed quite frequently in the domain of educational leadership research, there is a method that has been employed yet rarely discussed: shadowing. Although there are contributions related to shadowing as a method (for example Czarniawska, 2007; Martinko & Gardner, 1985; Meunier & Vasquez, 2008), these contributions have for the most part been focused on (business) management research, not educational research or educational leadership research. Additionally, little emphasis has so far been placed on the methodical parameters of shadowing studies, in other words how these studies were conducted. This contribution aims at tackling these issues. First, it attempts to offer an overview of the use of shadowing as a research method when studying school leaders. This is done via a thorough literature review of school leadership studies employing shadowing from the last two decades. The criteria for the review are listed below, the literature review encompasses studies from European countries as well as from the United States; it is hoped that the ECER will provide opportunities to learn about other European studies eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Next, a critique of the shadowing method is undertaken based on the findings from the review. Finally, a definition is proposed. This definition includes an attempt to position shadowing on the spectrum of quantitative and qualitative research.
This contribution aims to clarify what can be understood by shadowing, how shadowing can be used to research school leaders and how this method can be refined and adapted to better suit the needs of educational leadership research.
Arman, R., Vie, O. E., & Âsvoll, H. (2012). Refining shadowing methods for studying managerial work. In S. Tengblad (Ed.), The Work of Managers: Towards a Practice Theory of Management (S. 301–317). New York: Oxford University Press. Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods (2. Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Czarniawska, B. (2007). Shadowing: And Other Techniques for Doing Fieldwork in Modern Societies. Herndon, VA: Copenhagen Business School Press. Horng, E. L., Klasik, D., & Loeb, S. (2010). Principal’s time use and school effectiveness. American Journal of Education, 116(4), 491–523. Martinko, M. J., & Gardner, W. L. (1985). Beyond Structured Observation: Methodological Issues and New Directions. The Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 676–695. Martinko, M. J., & Gardner, W. L. (1990). Structured Observation of Managerial work - A Replication and Synthesis. Journal of Management Studies, 27(3), 329–357. Meunier, D., & Vasquez, C. (2008). On Shadowing the Hybrid Character of Actions: A Communicational Approach. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(3), 167–192. Mintzberg, H. (1970). Structured observation as a method to study managerial work. Journal of Management Studies, 7(1), 87–104. Polite, V. C., Mcclure, R., & Rollie, D. L. (1997). The Emerging Reflective Urban Principal: The Role of Shadowing Encounters. Urban Education, 31(5), 466–489. Spillane, J. P., & Hunt, B. (2010). Days of their lives: a mixed-methods, descriptive analysis of the men and women at work in the principal’s office. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42(3), 293–331. Thomas, A. R. (1998). Knowing principals through observation: What has the method taught us. Conference paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide, Australia. Thomas, A. R., & Ayres, J. (1998). A principal’s interruptions: time lost or time gained? International Journal of Educational Management, 12(6), 244–249. doi:10.1108/09513549810237922 Thornton, P. J., Thomas, A. R., & Vine, K. W. (1996). The physiological, psychological and work stress of primary school principals. International Journal of Educational Management, 10(6), 42–55. doi:10.1108/09513549610151695 Tulowitzki, P. (2013). Leadership & School Improvement in France. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(6). Whan, L. D., & Thomas, A. R. (1996). The Principalship and Stress in the Workplace: An Observational and Physiological Study. Journal of School Leadership, 6(4), 444–65.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
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Network 4. Inclusive Education
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