26 SES 03 B, Leadership Preperation Programs
The constant flux in organizational environment generates numerous internal and external forces on organizations. Educational organization and specifically public schools are not exceptions to these internal and external forces of change. It is commonly agreed that the success of the schools in accomplishing learning tasks largely depends on their success in responding to internal and external forces of change (Fullan, 2000). However, the concern of equipping the organizational with robust conceptual and practical tools to survive change initiatives has led to a plurality of change theories (Van de Ven & Poole, 1995). Indeed, the field of organizational change is one of the richest ones in terms of theories.
Common to all organizational change intervention models and theories is that these theories and models reflect planned change understanding (Burke, 2002). The planned change approach traces back to Lewin’s three-stage unfreeze-change-refreeze model. Although the planned change perspective has received extensive interest of organizational practitioners, several scholars identified planned change as the primary cause of high failure rate in change interventions (Fedman, 2000; Orlikowski, 1996; Tsoukas & Chia, 2002). Similar criticisms and concerns about planned change have been articulated by educational change researchers as well (Fullan, 1993; 2000). Holding a fragmented perspective rather than an integrated one (Clegg & Walsh, 2004), conceptualizing organizations as static entities, concentrating on stability and ignoring the ongoing nature of OC (Orlikowski, 1996; Tsoukas & Chia, 2002), focusing on formal, planned interventions and ignoring the informal and emergent nature of change (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1997), focusing on macro level and dramatic changes and ignoring micro level situated changes (March, 1981) are among the frequently voiced criticisms forwarded to planned change approach. Weick and Quinn (1999) labelled planned change as episodic change and stated that episodic change is far from daily conducts in the organization. In short, planned change misses an essential of change reality in organizations.
Several scholars proposed that change is a continuous phenomenon and embedded in daily practices of individuals (Weick & Quinn, 1999; Orlikowski, 1996; Tsoukas & Chia, 2002). Continuous change scholars argued that change is not a discrete, special, and extraordinary organizational practice. Rather, it is embedded in daily practices of individual members and diffused through social interaction. Unlike top down nature of planned and programmed change, continuous change progresses in a bottom-up fashion. Even organizational routines, which are considered as the most static management structures, are altered, broadened, and modified on a continuous basis (Feldman, 2000). This change approach advocates ongoing, micro-level, unintentional, and bottom-up nature of change.
Continuous change is relatively new conceptualization of change in the broader field of organization science. There are limited number of empirical investigations of continuous change in both organization science and educational administration fields. This study aims to investigate the dynamics of continuous change in educational organizations. That is, the particular focus of this study is on identifying the variables that promote continuous change behaviors of public school teachers and exploring the complex relationship between these variables. Therefore, the major purpose of this study is to test the mediating roles of school internal context variables (i.e., knowledge sharing and faculty trust in principal) on the relationship between perceived distributed leadership and continuous change behavior in Turkish schools, which have been undergoing various large and small scale structural changes.
Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1997). The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1), 1-34. Burke, W. W. (2002). Organization change: Theory and practice. London: Sage. Clegg, C., & Walsh, S. (2004). Change management: Time for a change! European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(2), 217-239. Feldman, M. (2000). Organizational routines as a source of continuous change. Organization Science, 11(6), 611-629. Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: Falmer Press. Fullan, M. (2000). The three stories of education reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(8), 581–584. Haser, C. & Kondakci, Y. (2011). Investigating professional socialization and academic identity development of young faculty members. Unpublished research report, Ankara, TR: TUBITAK. Hoy, W. K. & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2003). The conceptualization and measurement of faculty trust in schools: the omnibus T-Scale. In W. K. Hoy & C. G. Miskel (Eds.), Studies in leading and organizing schools (pp. 181-208). Greenwich CT: Information Age. Kondakci, Y. & Caliskan, O. (2011, September). Predictors of continuous change behavior: Investigating the relationship between process factors and continuous change behavior. Paper presented at the XIIth European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Berlin/Germany. March, J. G. (1981). Footnotes to organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(4), 563-577. Orlikowski, W. J. (1996). Improvising organizational transformation over time: A situated change perspective. Information Systems Research, 7(1), 63-92. Özer N, Demirtaş H, Üstüner M and Cömert M (2006) Ortaöğretim öğretmenlerinin örgütsel güven algısı. Ege Eğitim Dergisi 7(1): 103-124. Özer, N., & Beycioğlu, K. (2013). The development, validity and reliability study of Distributed Leadership Scale. Elementary Education Online, 12(1), 77-86. Porras, J. I., & Roberston, P. J. (1992). Organizational development: Theory, practice, research. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 719-822). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavioral Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5), 567-582. Van de Ven, A. H., & Poole, M. S. (1995). Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 510-540. Weick, K. E., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Organizational change and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50(1), 361-386.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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