06 SES 01, Visual Cultures: Video Ethnography and Video Production
Media world has been changing in many ways. Whereas the adolescents’ media usage until recent years has been consuming-oriented (Lenhart et al., 2007) in individual settings (Uusitalo et al., 2011), young people of today are attracted by visual media, interaction and 24/7 participation in media environments (Ito, 2010). Interactive technologies enable them to produce and publish online (Lenhart, 2012). Online content is getting increasingly visual: in Finland, for example, self-made videos are currently being published by equally many 10–12-year-olds as written texts in leisure (Suoninen, 2013).
Having adopted a role of content creator in out-of-school contexts, many young people hunger to use their skills also at school. Nevertheless, tension can be seen between in-school and out-of-school forms of literacy. Despite the relative sufficiency of technology in Finnish schools, many teachers have been reluctant to include new media and content creation in the classroom curriculum (Luukka et al., 2008). Recently, a promising increase has been seen in the number of teachers enthusiastic to employ production of media content, such as digital stories and videos, in classroom curriculum (Henderson et al., 2010). Still, school-driven products seem to be rarely published (Kupiainen, 2013).
Dealing with the public is increasingly important among young adolescents, who, by publishing and sharing, create an online presence and gain visibility in networked publics, and thus reputation, validation, and recognition (Lange & Ito, 2010). At the same time, they should learn to understand where to draw boundary between things that should and should not be exposed to other users (Tuominen & Mustonen, 2007).
As evolving digital technologies enable publishing activities in schools, the option of publishing needs to be considered as part of content production and teaching digital or “new” literacies and, thus, an essential topic to discuss. Following the ideas of Jaakkola (2010), this presentation introduces education for online publicity that, contrary to restrictive media protection, refers to media education implemented from the perspective of production and media encouragement. Young students are provided with safe media environments to experience the online publishing process, permitting trial and failure, and thus learn what is allowed in media and what is not.
According to Laitinen (2007), understanding media can be learned by producing media content by oneself, guided by a supportive teacher. Adopting this thought, it can be argued that learners assimilate and construct shared rules on how to act in the networked media by producing, publishing and sharing media content in authentic media environments, in other words “going online” in guided and supervised practices.
An online school TV, a YouTube channel called ‘kOuluTV’, was launched for student-generated videos and digital stories as an effort was made to bridge the gap between the media used in formal and informal environments (Palmgren-Neuvonen et al., 2011). kOuluTV was expected to serve as an open learning resource to inspire other students and teachers, and to challenge schools to the activity involving the learners with families and peers, as well as the school and other educational instances in multilateral negotiation on media ground rules (Jaakkola, 2010).
This presentation examines an under-researched area of the school-based online publishing by looking at an explorative case study in the context of the online television kOuluTV. The study, constructed and conducted in the FSR Second Wave project funded by European Social Fund in 2011–13, aims to develop pedagogy for online publishing. We focus on the student perspective with the following research questions:
- What kind of views do the primary and secondary students have about online publishing of learner-generated videos?
- What kind of factors may promote and hinder the online publishing of learner-generated videos?
Gibbons, D. (2013). Developing an Ethics of Youth Media Production Using Media Literacy, Identity, & Modality. Journal of Media Literacy Education: http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/jmle/vol4/iss3/6 Henderson, M., Auld, G., Holkner, B., Russell, G., Seah, W.T., Fernando, A., & Romeo, G. (2010). Students creating digital video in the primary classroom: student autonomy, learning outcomes, and professional learning communities. Australian Educational Computing - Journal of the Australian Council for computers in education, 24(2), 12–20. Ito, M. (2010, May 13). Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.itofisher.com/mito/publications/peerbased_learn_2.html Jaakkola, M. (2010) Uuden julkisuuden sääntöjä luomassa [Creating rules for new publicity – dialogical relationships as a method to bridge the digital gap between the generations], in M. Meriranta (Ed.) [The Handbook of Media Education]. Helsinki: Unipress. 37-62. Kupiainen, R. (2013). Young people’s creative online practices in the context of school community. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 7(1). doi: 10.5817/CP2013-1-8 Laitinen S (2007) [Understanding images – teaching visual media sense and skills], in H. Kynäslahti, R. Kupiainen & M. Lehtonen (Eds.) [Perspectives for Media Education]. Publications of The Finnish Society on Media Education 1/2007. Helsinki, 61–72. Lange, P.G. & Ito, M. (2010) Creative production. In Hanging Out, Messing Around, Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Rankin Macgill, A. & Smith, A. (2007). Teens and Social Media. The use of social media gains a greater foothold in teen life as they embrace the conversational nature of interactive online media. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2007/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf.pdf. Retrieved 15 January 2013. Lenhart, A. (2012). Teens & Online Video. Shooting, sharing, streaming and chatting – social media using teens are the most enthusiastic users of many online video capabilities. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Teens_and_online_video.pdf. Retrieved August 14, 2013. Luukka, M.R., Pöyhönen, S., Huhta, A., Taalas, P., Tarnanen, M., & Keränen, A. (2008). Maailma muuttuu – mitä tekee koulu? [The world changes – what does the school?]. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä. Palmgren-Neuvonen, L., Mikkola, H. & Kumpulainen, K. (2011). FutureStory – Digitarinat yhteistoiminnallisen oppimisen edistäjänä. In H. Mikkola, P. Jokinen & M. Hytönen (Eds.) Tulevaisuuden koulua kehittämässä: Uusi teknologia haastaa ja inspiroi. Oulu, University of Oulu. 73-90. Suoninen, A. (2013) Lasten mediabarometri 2012. 10–12-vuotiaiden tyttöjen ja poikien mediankäyttö. [Children's media barometer 2012: The Use of Media among 10–12-year-olds in Finland.]
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