26 SES 04 B, Quality, Context and Leadership
This presentation is part of a larger project about motivation and performance management to enhance quality in underperforming schools; hence the conceptualisation of power as a potential motivational tool or process. This must be conducted in a complex environment.
Complexity is distinguished from complicated. According to Uhl-Bien and Marion (2009) complicated refers to an individual part or component (despite a huge number of components), e.g. jumbo jets or computers. That is one unit with many components but can be analysed and understood as a unit. Complexity refers to relationships in a system and cannot be fully explained by analysing its individual components because they are not fixed but constantly shifting and changing, it is complex e.g. the brain, rain forest, social systems (education system). European schools experience more diversity and complexity with the economic crisis as well as an influx of non- west European learners in the schools (Dobbernack and Modood 2011). It may therefore be important and expected of principals to use their power and authority in this complex educations system with numerous role players e.g. parents, local, national and even global educational authorities, and community structures, private and non-governmental organisations. All of them have different demands and expectations from principals and the performance of learners in the school. Principals and every person as a human being is in itself a complexity on its own which extends the complexity for the individual principal.
Power and leadership are contextually bound in their endeavour to be successful in what the leader wants to achieve (Altınkurt and Yılmaz 2012). Power can be situated in the person but also the structure in which the person is performing their roles and functions. In this case the person is a leader in a school namely the principal. The research therefore explored to understand which powers are normally available or associated for school leaders and they understand that they have these powers and is able to apply or use it to achieve the academic goals for the school. The following sources of power, namely referent legitimate, coercive, reward and expert (Yukl 2013) will be used to analyse the principal’s effort to exert power.
Pintrich and Schunk (2002) associate authority with the control and decision making that a person has to have more control over your own situation. This authority must be given to you and accepted by other role players to make it powerful. They link this kind of authority to goal and intrinsic motivation and can be a strong force in the process to improve school performance. According to Yukl (2013) authority is linked to the position of a person in the organisation; and can therefore directly be linked to legitimate power. The position of principal appointed in a specific post at the top of the hierarchy in a school bestows the person with certain authority. Yukl also indicates that principal’s power and authority may be challenged and therefore even legitimate power may not be effective and needs legitimation (acceptance) from the followers to be effective. The exercise of this authority will gain or lose support from the followers in the organisation.
The research question for the presentation is: Are school leaders able to use their power and authority to improve and sustain quality education in their schools.
The objective of the presentation to understand why principals may find it cumbersome utilise their power and authority in the complexity of a school as part of larger education system.
Altınkurt Yand Yılmaz K 2012 Relationship between the school administrators’ power sources and teachers’ organizational trust levels in Turkey. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 58-70 Crawford M (2009) Getting to the heart of leadership. Emotion and educational leadership. London: Sage. Denisi AS (2011) Managing Performance to Change Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 31: 262–276. Dobbernack J and Modood T. 2011. Tolerance and cultural diversity in Europe: Theoretical perspectives and contemporary developments. Published by the European University Institute Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Via dei Roccettini 9 50014 San Domenico di Fiesole – Italy. http://www.eui.eu/Projects/ACCEPT/Documents/Research/wp2/ACCEPTPLURALISMWP2D2-1Stateoftheartreport.pdf Forrester G (2011) Performance management in education: milestone or millstone? Management in Education 25(1): 5–9. King N and Horrocks C (2010) Interviews in qualitative research. Los Angeles: Sage.Pintrich P R and Schunk D H 2002. Motivation in education. Theory, research and application. Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall Latham G P 2007 Work and motivation: history, theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: London Martin AJ and Dowson M (2009) Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research 79(1): 327-365. Owens R G and Valseky T C 2011 Organizational behaviour in education. Leadership and school reform. Boston: Pearson Pintrich PR and Schunk DH (2002) Motivation in Education: Theory, research and applications. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Punch K F 2009. Introduction to research methods in education. Los Angeles: Sage Reeve J 2011. Understanding motivation and emotion. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ryan R M 2012 The Oxford handbook of human motivation. Oxford: Oxford University press Sheppard B, Canning M, Tuchinsky M and Campbell C (2006) Inspiring others: What really motivates people. Chicago: Kaplan Publishing. Stewart DW, Shamdasani PM and Rook DW (2007) Focus groups. Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage PublicationsUhl-Bien M and Marion R 2009. Complexity leadership in bureaucratic forms of organizing: A meso model. The Leadership Quarterly 20; 631–650 Yukl G 2013. Leadership in organisations, 8 the edition Boston: Pearson
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
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Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
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