20 SES 04 A, Creativity, Entrepreneurship and Innovative, Intercultural Learning
The last years there is a great emphasis on the field of entrepreneurship education in the educational systems of the most European countries (Vestergaard, Moberg, & Jørgensen, 2012). National educational systems are facing new challenges as entrepreneurship education and, consequently, its effectiveness measurements are to be brought in. The European Union has stated entrepreneurship as one of the key competences for Europeans. To achieve these challenges EU has named entrepreneurial skills, encouraging entrepreneurship by fostering the right mindset and awareness of career (European Commission , 2003) opportunities as an entrepreneur as goals and methods for European education system. The overall goal of entrepreneurship education is to give students the attitudes, knowledge and skills to act in an entrepreneurial way. In the primary education, even if entrepreneurship is rarely included in the national curriculum of most of the European countries, there are efforts that foreseeing the encouragement of light entrepreneurial skills which in the future can be considered as the base for the development of real entrepreneurial skills. The ‘European frame’ in 2006 defined eight basic competences which are considered as essentials for the personal completion and development of every European citizen, defining the ‘Entrepreneurial initiative’ as one of those (Eurydice Report, 2012). The sense of initiative in entrepreneurship is referred as the ability to transform ideas in action including, creativity, innovation, risk taking and also the ability of planning in order the targets to be succeeded in an effective way.
The important role of education in promoting more entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors, starting even at primary school, is now widely recognized. A basic assumption where all the interest of entrepreneurship education relies on is that entrepreneurship by itself and also the entrepreneurial skills can be taught (Oodterbeek, Praag, & Ijsselstein, 2010).
In recent years a number of evaluation studies have addressed whether entrepreneurship education is effective in reaching its stated goals (Huber, Sloof, & Van Praag, 2012). Results show that efforts already being done in primary education is not enough and more long-lasting plans coherent with the future goals of entrepreneurship education should be considered (Tsakiridou & Stergiou, 2012).
The purpose of the present study is to examine if the elemendary students in Greece have received any entrepreneurship training during their studies in the Primary School and if they have developed skills related to entrepreneural behavior. Moreover, the study records students' views on the concept of entrepreneurship and the possibility of becoming entrepreneurs and creating their own business.
European Commission . (2003). Entrepreneurship in Europe. Brussels. Eurydice Report. (2012). Developing Key Competences at School in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy. Huber, L. R., Sloof, R., & Van Praag, M. (2012). The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Oodterbeek, H., Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review (54), σσ. 442-454. Tsakiridou, H., & Stergiou, K. (2012, December 3). Entrepreneurship Education in Primary Education Departments. The case of the University of Western Macedonia in Greece. Advanced Research in Scientific Areas . Unger, J., Rauch, A., Frese, M., & Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing , σσ. 341-358. Vestergaard, L., Moberg, K., & Jørgensen, C. (2012). Impact of Entrepreneurship Education in Denmark 2011. The Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship - Young Enterprise . European Comission. (2004). Education in Entrepreneurship: Make progress in promoting entrepreneurship and related skills through primary and secondary education.
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