07 SES 07 C, Case Studies into Cultural Identities and Inequality
The data are clear. Actually, the inequalities in the world are the deepest since 2ndWorld War. And what is even worse, the economic crisis, globalization, neoliberal policies ... will increase the gap in the coming years.
It´s sure that in the fight for a fair society the education plays a key role. Although no one doubts that it is the instrument used by society to legitimize injustice through its power to grant and deny titles (Connell, 1997), it has also been demonstrated its capability to compensate differences in the point of departure and contribute to social mobility. Thus, education for social justice necessarily involves some work from schools and Social Justice (Cochran-Smith et al, 2009; Dubet, 2004; Petrou, Angelides & Leigh, 2009
The expression "Social Justice" in general, but especially applied the educational field appears as too ambiguous and slippery (Troyna and Vincent, 1995; Fazal Rizvi, 1998, Griffiths, 2003). So, you may have to share with Griffiths (2003: 55) the idea of thinking "social justice as a verb", ie, a dynamic project, never complete, finished or achieved "once and for all," should be always anchor to reflection and improvement.
From this research we assume a three-dimensional view of Social Justice in the three "Rs" (Murillo and Hernández-Castilla, 2012) Redistribution (Economic Justice), both of primary goods (Rawls, 1971) and capabilities (Nusbaumm, 2011; Sen, 2010), recognition (Cultural Justice) (Fraser and Honeth, 2005; Honeth 1996) and representation (Justice Policy) (Fraser, 2008; Young, 2011).
Thus, international research (p.e. Pitt , 1998; Thrupp & Lupton, 2006; Enterline et al, 2008) have identified some elements that characterize the school functioning and organization working for Social Justice: a) The whole community have shared goals focus on a comprehensive development for all students and endeavour for social justice objectives, b) Has a curriculum concentrated on educating the students as members of a socially cohesive community and includes them as visible part all its elements related to gender issues, culture, and ethnicity equity c ) Upholds high expectations and provides opportunities for learning for all students and teachers, d ) Provides socially responsible opportunities for creativity and aesthetic innovation ; f) Welfare issues are concerned ; g) Promotes critical thinking in a democratic society; h) Provides opportunities for negotiation with students, parents and other organizations; i) Involves parents in the school and educational community; j) Share experiences with other schools and their environment; k) Offers teaching strategies to support conflict l) It is concerned to provide better planning and extracurricular activities, m) considers cultural, linguistic aspects and experiences that students and families bring to school, n) has teachers who advocate change and are involved with it, and l) Teaching is viewed as an activity that is related to the assumptions and beliefs of teachers about race , gender, disability and culture.
Connell, R.W. (1997). Escuelas y justicia social. Madrid: Morata. Cochran-Smith, M. (2009). Toward a theory of teacher education for social justice. In Second international handbook of educational change (pp. 445-467). Springer Netherlands. Dubet, F. (2004). L'école des chances: qu'est-ce qu'une école juste? Paris: Seuil. Enterline, S., Cochran-Smith, M., Ludlow, L. H., & Mitescu, E. (2008). Learning to teach for social justice: Measuring change in the beliefs of teacher candidates. The New Educator, 4(4), 267-290. Fraser, N. (1990). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. Social text, (25/26), 56-80. Fraser. N. y Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or Recognition? A Philosophical Exchange. New York: Verso. Ho, A. (1995). The fragmented world of the social: essays in social and political philosophy. Suny Press. Griffiths, M. (2003). Action for Social Justice in Education. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Torrecilla, F. J. M., & Hernández-Castilla, R. (2011). Hacia un concepto de justicia social. REICE: Revista Electrónica Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 9(4), 7-23. Nussbaum, M. C. (2001). Women and human development: The capabilities approach (Vol. 3). Petrou, A., Angelides, P., & Leigh, J. (2009). Beyond the difference: From the margins to inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(5), 439-448. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Rizvi, F. (1998). Some thoughts on contemporary theories of social justice. Action research in practice: Partnerships for social justice in education, 47-56. Sen, A.K. (2010). La idea de la justicia. Madrid: Taurus Troyna, B. &Vicen, C. (1995). The discourses of social justice in education. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, 16 (2), 149-166 Thrupp, M. (1999). Schools Making a Difference: Let's Be Realistic! School Mix, School Effectiveness and the Social Limits of Reform. Taylor and Francis Group, 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, KY 41042 (hardbound: ISBN-0-335-20213-6, $95; paperbound: ISBN-0-335-20212-8, $29.95). Thrupp, M., & Lupton, R. (2006). Taking school contexts more seriously: The social justice challenge. British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(3), 308-328. Young, I. M. (2011), Justice and the politics of Difference. Princeton University Press.
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