06 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
Institutions of mass communication, television involved, have a special role in the following: giving information to the public, communicating general knowledge and providing advice concerning daily life. Due to the complexity of the world around us, beside primary experience based on direct observation, it is significant in the orientation of the individual to have second-hand information on other people’s observation, as well. (Angelusz, 2000). Luhmann also mentions that whatever we do know about our world and society we get informed from mass media (Luhmann, 2008). According to McQuail, media are expected to provide information about public events and show us moral and social injustices (McQuail, 2003). Similarly Wisinger also emphasises that one of the main tasks of televisin is giving information and it refers to every single programme (Wisinger, 2008). Informing, according to Szabó, is aimed at the viewer to make him understand news, data, activities happening in the world (personal, environmental, local, national, international) around him (Széles-Szabó-Rozgonyi-Ballai, 2011). In this informative function television news has a crucial role, that is why its informative quality is worth analysing.
Nowadays, in the digital era, when innumerable television channels are available, it is highly important to examine how much media, especially television help learning and getting informed. With the spreading of local television broadcasting this question is relevant both in terms of national, as well as international programmes and also in local cable and/or satellite television. It is basically agreed among researchers that television functions as potential means of an educational medium.
Beside entertaining, politics and advertising, McQuail considers education as one of the four roles of mass media (McQuail, 2003). According to Buckingham, media are basically ’educational’ referring to news programmes, as well. Learning with the help of television belongs to informal learning, say some researchers, and one form of this is individual learning. About 70 % of the people in the survey consider television as means of learning (Forray-Juhász, 2009). Based on the data above, it is relevant that we analyse television, including local television, as one of the means of general education.
According to Zsolt news is defined as apparently objective, up-to-date new information that may interest several people and/or may cause changes in their lives (Zsolt, 2005). News can be termed as the summary of controlled information from authentic sources, which have relevance to the life of large segments of population, and come to life through professional research of journalism. News is a short, understandable, objective material of journalism.
In this study we analyse segments of news which create coherent, closed entities of a certain topic and which are formally separated by editors and presenters, as well. The events chosen to be broadcast by editors will be determined on the basis of being newsworthy. Whatever the journalist considers suitable for broadcasting also depends on the given cultural and social environment (Zsolt, 2005).
According to Luhmann newsworthy events are determined by their novelty, the existence of conflicts, quantities, local relevance, breaches of norms, focus on the people involved, actuality, comments on the news as separate pieces, space and time at hand (Luhmann, 2008). Events that can be referred to some time later are defined as key events by Fishman. (Fishman, 1982).
AGB Nieslen Media Research (2012): Az ismeretterjesztő csatornák közönségarányának alakulása 2005-2012 között, különböző célcsoportokban. Ahmed, Sara (2006): Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others . NC, Duke University Press Angelusz, Róbert (2000): A láthatóság görbe tükrei – Társadalompolitikai tanulmányok. Budapest, Új Mandátum. Bajomi-Lázár P.(2000): Közszolgálati rádiózás Nyugat-Európában. Budapest, Új Mandátum Kiadó Bird, S. Elizabeth (2003): The audience in everyday life: Livin in a Media World. New York and London, Routledge Bourdieu, Pierre (2001): Előadások a televízióról (ford.: Erőss Gábor). Budapest, Osiris Kiadó. Buckingham, David (2005): Médiaoktatás. (ford.: Károlyi Júlia) Budapest, Új Mandátum Kiadó Erbring, Lutz (1989): Nachrichten zwischen Professionalitat und Manipulation – Jurnalistiche Berufsnormen und politische Kultur. In: Massekommunitation, Kölner Zeitsvhrift für Sociologie und Socialpsychologie (hrsg: Kaase, M – Schultz, W.). Sonderheft, 1989, 301-313. Fishman, M. (1982) ’News and non-events: making the visible invisible’ in J. S. Etterna és D. C. Whitney (szerk.), Individuals in Mass Media Organizations, pp. 219-40. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Forray R. Katalin – Juhász Erika (szerk.) (2009): Nonformális – informális – autonóm tanulás. Debrecen, Debreceni Egyetem. 12-37.pp. Gauntlett, David - Hill, Annette (1999): TV Living: Television, Culture and Everyday Life, London and New York, Routledge/British Film Institute. Galtung, Johann – Ruge, Marie Holboe (1965): In The Structure of Foreign News, Journal Of Peace Research2 , 64-91. p. Kenyeres Attila Zoltán (2009): A tudományos ismeretterjesztő televízió műsorok szerepe a felnőttek informális tanulásában. In: Forray R. Katalin – Juhász Erika (szerk.): Nonformális – informális – autonóm tanulás. Debrecen, Debreceni Egyetem. 285-290.p.
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