23 SES 01 C, Policies & Politics of Exclusion and Inclusion (Part 1)
Paper Session to be continued in 23 SES 02 C
The European countries have during the last decades seen a dramatic expansion of market solutions in education (Ball, 2003, 2007). This is also the case for Sweden, which has developed a more full-blown ‘school market’ than most other countries in the world (Lundahl et al, 2013, 2014). The current expanding ‘edu-business’ is an effect of the implementation of liberal school reforms during the early 1990s (Erixon Arreman & Holm, 2011a,b). The upper secondary sector (i.e. post 16 education) is the most affected and today all schools in Sweden, public as well as independent, compete with each other for students, teachers and reputation. In parallel to marketization for which choice and competition are the main mechanisms (Perry & Southwell 2013) schools have to deal with the vision and longstanding goal of inclusion and equity in a ‘school for all’ (SFS 2010: 800). Swedish education’s strive for social inclusion (Arnesen & Lundahl, 2006) is increasingly challenged as Swedish education encounters growing social segregation between schools and widening gaps between students’ achievement in the last decade (National Agency for Education 2013; SOU, 2014:5).
School leaders are often described as key-actors for change and crucial for improving school performance, equity and capacities of teachers (Pont, Nusche & Moorman, 2008). However, the role of school leaders has been challenged in parallel to schools transition from public institutions into market-competitive organisations. Recent research describes how principals’ professional identities have become more manager-like and similar to a business leader (Holm & Lundström, 2011; Jarl & Rönnberg, 2010; National Agency for Education, 2010). Moos (2009) highlights recent changes of school leadership caused by increased demands for accountability, as part of the international New Public Management trend. School leaders need to balance these external demands with the internal demands from teachers for discretion. However, the development is multi-dimensional as NPM strengthens external demands at the same time as it contributes to a strengthened professional role for the principals (Jarl et al. 2012). This paper aims to explore how Swedish upper secondary school principals perceive and deal with the intersection between increased school marketization and aspects of social inclusion and equity in school. How does marketization affect the principals’ work for inclusion? What types of school leadership emerge?
Theoretically, the paper is based on policy studies on privatization of education (e.g. Ball, 2003, 2007) arguing that intensified global competition rhetoric has led to an increased focus on the outcomes and demands for measurability. Using Silver’s (1994) definition of inclusion as the ability of individuals to exercise their right to participate, the paper claims that the marketization trend implies that the new monopoly paradigm of social inclusion (e.g. prioritized policies of redistribution of opportunities) have increasingly been challenged and almost replaced by a specialization paradigm (e.g. policies promoting high diversification). Moreover, in our analysis of the links between social inclusion, educational policy and school leadership, we are inspired by the analytical framework elaborated by Raffo and Gunter (2008). They use two aspects of inclusion, economic and cultural inclusion, which they link to two perspectives, the functionalist and social critical perspectives.
Arnesen, A-L, Lundahl, L, (2006). Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58 (3), 285-300. Ball, S. (2003). The teacher‘s soul and the terrors of performativity. J. of Education Policy 18(2), 215- 228. Ball S. (2007) Education plc: Understanding private sector participation in public sector education, London: Routledge. Erixon Arreman, I. & Holm, A-S (2011). Privatisation of public education? The emergence of independent upper secondary schools in Sweden. Journal of Education Policy, 26 (2), 225–242. Erixon Arreman, I. & Holm, A-S. (2011b). School as “Edu-business”: Four “serious players” in the Swedish upper secondary school market. Education Inquiry, 2(4), 637–664. Holm A.S. & Lundström, U. (2011). ‘Living with the Market Forces’. Principals‘ Perceptions of Market Competition in Swedish Upper Secondary School Education. Education Enquiry Jarl, M., Fredriksson, A. & Persson, S. (2012). New Public Management in Public Education: A Catalyst for the Professionalization of Swedish School Principals. Public Administration, 90 (2), 429-444 Jarl, M. & Rönnberg, L. (2010). Skolpolitik. Stockholm: Liber. Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A-S., & Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry.4(3), 497-517. Moos, L. (2009). Hard and Soft Governance: the journey from transnational agencies to school leadership.European Educational Research Journal. 8(3) 397-406. National Agency for Education (2010). Konkurrensen om eleverna. Stockholm: Fritzes. National Agency for Education (2013). PISA 2012. 15-åringars kunskaper i matematik, läsförståelse och naturvetenskap. Rapport 398. Stockholm: Fritzes. Perry, L. B. & Southwell, L. (2014) Access to academic curriculum in Australian secondary schools: a case study of a highly marketised education system. Journal of Education Policy, 29 (4), 467-485 SFS 2010:800 Education Act. Ministry of Education. Pont, B., Nusche, D. & Moorman, H. (2008). Improving School Leadership. Volume 1: Policy and practice. Paris: OECD. Raffo, C. & Gunter, H. (2008). Leading schools to promote social inclusion: developing a conceptual framework for analysing research, policy and practice. Journal of Education Policy, 23(4), 397-414. Silver H. (1994). Social exclusion and social solidarity: Three paradigms, International Labour Review, Vol.133, No.5-6, 531-572. SOU (2014:5). Staten får inte abdikera – om kommunaliseringen av den svenska skolan. Betänkande av Utredningen om skolans kommunalisering. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet.
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