02 SES 03 C, Transitions: Career Paths, Transitions and Induction
Transition from school to the labour market is a widely researched topic, including OECD (1996) and ILO (2010), who also conducted international research. OECD analyses the transition also on the level of structures by comparing the educational and labour market subsystems. The success of transition is measured according to how well the qualifications can be mapped to the labour market jobs.
This typology can be deducted from two different theories: internal versus occupational labour market. They are also referred to as qualificational versus organisational space. In 2005 Müller compared several countries in terms of educational and labour market systems. In countries with an occupational labour market, the future social status is more determined.
On one extreme of this typology there are the countries with dual training (e.g. Germany, Austria, and Hungary). Here the link between education and the labour market is very strong. On the other end of the scale there are the countries where VET is not part of the compulsory education at all (e.g. USA, Canada).
The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) also conducted comparative research in the topic. In 2012 they published an analysis of the transition process, based on the data of the 2009 EU labour market survey. They found 35.2 million people with ISCED level 3 or 4 in the age group of 15 to 34. VET popularity is the highest in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria. Another finding of the research is the importance of family background in school selection: the more qualified the parents, the higher qualification the children want to achieve (Cedefop, 2012).
Additionally to the international studies, there were many national-level research projects conducted. Hodkinson, Hodkinson and Sparkes (2012) depict the career path and decisions of British youth in the 18 months after graduation. Some researchers concentrate on smaller segments of the transition in details, rather than surveying a whole generation. E.g. there is a separated research trend on transition dysfunctions (Nochajski–Schweitzer, 2014; Vuolo–Staff–Mortimer, 2012); another one is on observation of special social groups, e.g. disadvantaged (immigrants) (Tchibozo, 2013). These methods apply to career tracking, but there are also policy analyses available. (DeLuca et al., 2011).
Research questions: from 2010, our research has been focused on the school to work transition in Hungary: the demonstration of the link between learning and career paths, the exploration of the uncertainties of transition. We also surveyed the chances of the differently qualified Hungarian youth (ISCED 3 vs. 4) on the different learning paths.
Cedefop (2012): From Educatio to working life. The labour market outcomes of vocational education and training. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012. DeLuca, C. –Hutchinson, N. – Hill, A. – Chin., P. (2011): International and National Factors Affecting School-To-Work Transition for At-Risk Youth in Canada: An Integrative Review Joan Versnel. The Canadian Journal of Career Development, Volume 10, Number 1. Hodkinson, P. – Hodkinson, H. – Sparkes, A. (2012): Triumphs and Tears: Young People, Markets, and the Transition from School to Work. Routledge: New York. International Labour Organization (2010): Characterizing the school-to-work transitions of young men and women: Evidence from the ILO School-to-work transition surveys. Employment Working Paper No. 51 Müller, Walter (2005): Education and Youth Integration into European Labour Market . International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 46: 461-485 Nochajski, Susan, M. – Schweitzer, Jo A. (2014): Promoting school to work transition for students with motional/behavioral disorders. Work, Volume 48, Number 3. OECD (1996): Cross-National Research on School to Work Transitions: An Analytical Framework Tchibozo, G. (2013): Cultural and Social Diversity and the Transition from Education to Work. Springer Vuolo, M.; Staff, J.; Mortimer, J. T (2012).: Weathering the great recession: Psychological and behavioral trajectories in the transition from school to work. Developmental Psychology, Vol 48(6), Nov 2012, 1759-1773.
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