22 SES 06 D, Doctoral Programs in Various Perspectives
The goal of the Bologna Process is to establish a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) with standardized curricula for Bachelor, Master and doctoral degrees. The London Communiqué stressed the importance of structured doctoral programs for curricula reform in doctoral training and the transfer of skills for occupations inside of academia and outside (Bologna Process 2007). In Germany structured doctoral programs have been introduced since the 1980s with similar goals: The programs were expected to provide formalized training conditions, improve the quality of supervision and reduce the time to degree for doctoral candidates whilst qualifying for occupations in research and beyond (Enders & Bornmann 2001; Wissenschaftsrat 2002, 2011). Today a variety of structured doctoral programs exist in Germany alongside more traditional ways of doctoral candidature such as research assistants, scholarship holders or candidates working on their dissertation external to universities and research institutes, the so called external candidates. Each of the different pathways differs with respect to the intensity of supervision, teaching duties, access to resources required for research and the time available for working on the dissertation (Hauss et al., 2012).
The processes of standardization in doctoral training and the introduction of the diverse doctoral programs come not without criticism. Throughout Europe critics have raised concern whether the focus on employability and skills demanded by the labor market external to academia might lead to a neglect of those competencies required for research (Schreiterer 2011). In Germany the Wissenschaftsrat (Council for Science and Humanities) clearly positioned itself stating that any attempt not putting original research into the center of the dissertation neglects the logic of the German doctorate whilst stressing the importance of imparting transferable skills (Wissenschaftsrat 2011). Thus, structured doctoral programs are located between two poles: the individual qualification for a career in research through an original contribution of knowledge to the field and imparting transferable skills which are of use for the labor market outside of academia.
In this context, the job placement within or outside of academia is of special interest. While an early analysis of graduates from collaborative research centers showed no impact on the subsequent job placement in academia compared to other doctorate holders (Enders & Kottmann 2009) it is largely unclear how other structured programs perform with regard to who is placed in academia, who not and why. Moreover, it is known that doctorate holders placed in academia are on average more satisfied with the independence and intellectual challenge of their occupation but less satisfied with their salary and job security compared to doctorate holders working outside of academia (Auriol et al., 2013; Waaijer, 2014). Against this background, the question arises whether the form of doctoral education- in particular structured doctoral programs - has any effect on the output of doctoral training and, one step further, on the job placement inside or outside of academia.
We are aiming at an evaluation of different structured doctoral programs in comparison to other pathways of doctoral candidature such as scholarship holders, research assistants and external candidates.
Auriol, Laudeline, Max Misu, and Rebecca A. Freeman. 2013. Careers of Doctorate Holders: Analysis of Labour Market and Mobility Indicators. Bologna Process. 2007. London Communique. Towards the European Higher Education Area: responding to challenges in a globalized world. Available online at: https://www.eqar.eu/fileadmin/documents/bologna/London-Communique-18May2007.pdf Enders, Jürgen and Lutz Bornmann. 2001. Karriere mit Doktortitel? Ausbildung, Berufsverlauf und Berufserfolg von Promovierten, Frankfurt a.M., New York: Campus. Enders, Jürgen and Andrea Kottmann. 2009. Neue Ausbildungsformen - andere Werdegänge? Ausbildungs- und Berufsverläufe von Absolventinnen und Absolventen der Graduiertenkollegs der DFG, Weinheim: WILEY-VCH. Groen, Jeffrey A., George H. Jakubson, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Scott Condie, and Albert Y. Liu. 2008. "Program design and student outcomes in graduate education" Economics of Education Review. 27:111–124. Hauss, Kalle, Marc Kaulisch, Manuela Zinnbauer, Jakob Tesch, Anna Fräßdorf, Sibylle Hinze, and Stefan Hornbostel. 2012. Promovierende im Profil: Wege, Strukturen und Rahmenbedingungen von Promotionen in Deutschland. Ergebnisse aus dem Profile-Promovierendenpanel, Berlin. Schreiterer, Ulrich. 2008. "Concluding Summary. Form Follows Function: Research, the Knowledge Economy, and the Features of Doctoral Education" Higher Education in Europe. 33:149–157. Waaijer, C. 2014. The influence of career perspectives on the job choice of recent PhD graduates: a survey of five Dutch universities. In: Proceedings of the science and technology indicators conference (STI) 2014, Leiden. Wissenschaftsrat. 2002. Empfehlungen zur Doktorandenausbildung. Drs. 5459/02, Saarbrücken. Wissenschaftsrat. 2011. Anforderungen an die Qualitätssicherung der Promotion. Positionspapier, Köln.
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