22 SES 10 C, Entrepreneurial Universities and Valorisation
The concept of University-Business Collaboration (UBC) is understood as linkages or transactions between universities and business based on common benefits and formal agreements, irrespective of their types of activities involved, their scope or formality (Mora, Detmer, & Vieira, 2010). This collaboration includes all types of interactions (direct and indirect, personal and non-personal) between these institutions and organisations for reciprocal and mutual benefits whose include collaboration and commercialisation in R&D, mobilities of students and academics, lifelong learning and curriculum development, and other activities related to entrepreneurship and governance (Healy, Perkmann, Goddard, & Kempton, 2014). The success of the cooperation between universities and business is considered the ideal driver of knowledge-based economies and societies (Davey, Baaken, Galan Muros, & Meerman, 2011). In the case of universities, the importance of this cooperation and the expectation to develop a wider range of linkages with stakeholders lies in enhance regional innovation systems (Miller, McAdam, & McAdam, 2014).
UBC at university level, known as “Third Mission”, enables universities to further develop their research and innovation, education and social missions (Borrel-Damian, Morais, & Smith, 2014). While there is no a common definition of what “third mission” comprises, this term concerns all kind of university activities beyond teaching and research (Vorley & Nelles, 2008; Görason et al., 2009) and other university capabilities outside of the academic contexts (Tuunainen, 2005). For these institutions, the fact that they could cooperate with the external environment is a way to prove their relevance and, in the economic aspect, a form of securing additional funding (Koryakina, Sarrico, & Teixeira, 2015).
It is conceptually difficult to separate the areas that are within UBC, but all of them are characterised by highly collaborative, sharing and co-creation between the university and business mainly in three areas (Mora, Ferreira, Vidal, & Vieira, 2014; Vidal, Vieira, & Ferreira, 2014):
- Technology Transfer and Innovation: this dimension involves activities to serve society to offer technology transfer services (consultancy, patents, spin-off, start-up companies, etc.). This is the result of the research conducted at universities into a non-academic environment (in cooperation with external partners or not) based on the generation or use of knowledge which may results social and commercial benefits at local, regional, national or global levels (E3M project, 2012a).
- Lifelong learning/Continuing Education: continuing education and training is part of lifelong learning and may encompass any kind of education (formal, informal or non-formal). This aspect is crucial for the employability of individuals (CEDEFOP, 2008). At university level, this dimension mainly includes programmes of continuing education courses related to leisure or professional interests.
- Social Engagement: this dimension overlaps the previous areas and is extremely broad, since this "social" term is a useful synonym for describing the fundamental idea of the Third Mission concept (Trencher, Yarime, McCormick, Doll, & Kraines, 2014). One of the key social engagement activities is volunteering, but also this dimension involves activities such us social consultancy, using expertise to solve problems for the public; educational outreach, running the more informal kind of learning programmes; or services and facilities, and putting resources to work for society (E3M Project, 2012b).
There is considerable trend to promote the collaboration between universities and society at large, especially with business, understanding by this term, all types of public and private enterprise organisations for profit, irrespective of their size, economic sector or ownership. Considering that, the objective of this paper is to describe the UBC activities of European and Vietnamese universities for having an overall picture of this collaboration and how these activities are developed, which is part of the Erasmus+ project: Supporting Entrepreneurial Development in the field of IT in Vietnamese HEIs (ICTentr)”.
Borrel-Damian, L., Morais, R., & Smith, J. H. (2014). University-Business collaborative research: goals, outcomes and new assessment tools. Brussels: European University Association. CEDEFOP (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy. A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Davey, T., Baaken, T., Galan Muros, V., & Meerman, A. (2011). Study on the cooperation between Higher Education Institutions and public and private organisation in Europe. Science to Business Marketing Reseacrh Centre. E3M project (2012a). Conceptual Framework for Third Mission Indicator Definition. Retrieved from http://www.e3mproject.eu E3M Project (2012b). Green Paper. Fostering and Measuring “Third Mission” in Higher Education Institutions. Retrieved from http://www.e3mproject.eu Görason, B., Maharajh, R., & Schmoch, U. (2009). New activities of universities in transfer and extension: multiple requirements and manifold solutions. Science and Public Policy, 36(2), 157-164. Healy, A., Perkmann, M, Goddard, J., & Kempton, L. (2014). Measuring the impact of University-business cooperation. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union. Koryakina, T., Sarrico, C, & Teixeira, P. N. (2015). Universities´ Third Mission Activities. Challenges to extending boundaries. In E. Reale & E. Primeri (Eds.), The transformation of university institutional and organizational boundaries (pp. 63-82). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Miller, K., McAdam, M., & McAdam, R. (2014). The changing university business model: a stakeholder perspective. R&D Management, 44(3), 265-287. Mora, J. G., Detmer, A., & Vieira, M. J. (2010). Good Practices in Univeristy-Enterprises Partnerships GOODUEP. Retrieved from www.gooduep.eu Mora, J. G., Ferreira, C., Vidal, J., & Vieira, M. J. (2015). Higher Education in Albania: developing Third Mission activities. Tertiary Education and Management, 21(1), 29-40. Trencher, G., Yarime, M., McCormick, K. B., Doll, C. N. H., & Kraines, S. B. (2014). Beyond the third mission: exploring the emerging university function of co-creation for sustainability. Science and Public Policy, 41, 151-179. doi: 10.1093/scipol/sct044 Tuunainen, J. (2005). Hybrid practices? Contributions to the Debate on the Mutation of Science and University. Higher Education, 50(2), 275-298. Vidal, J., Vieira, M. J., & Ferreira, C. (2014). Developing Third Mission Activities in Albania. León: Universidad de León, Servicio de publicaciones. Vorley, T., & Nelles, J. (2008). (Re)Conceptualising the Academy: Institutional Development of and beyond the Third Mission. Higher Education Management and Policy, 20(3), 119-135.
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