02 SES 08 A, Individual Aspects of Learning and Socialization at the Workplace
Current international career research understands individual’s career development no longer in a linear and hierarchical, but in a multifaceted, unstable, cyclical, and transitional way over the life course (Bimrose & Hearne, 2012). Linear pathways through vocational education and training (VET), in which adolescents pass through an apprenticeship or vocational school without any change are not always the common way. About one third of the apprentices in Switzerland are confronted with an early cancellation of the apprenticeship contract: They change their occupation or organisation, interrupt their training or completely drop out from VET (Stalder, 2012).
An early cancelation of the apprenticeship contract is a critical life event (CLE) in the educational career of young people (Schmid, 2009) that might affect their lives in different ways. On the one hand, CLE, such as an early contract cancelation, can figure as opportunities for personal and professional development, because they allow young people to revise previous career decisions and to continue their apprenticeship in firms with a higher training quality (Filipp, 1995; Holmes & Rahe, 1967; Schmid & Stalder, 2012; Stalder & Schmid, in press). On the other hand, an early contract cancelation can pose a threat, as young adults risk not to find a re-entry into VET and to remain without educational qualification (Schmid & Stalder, 2012; Uhly, 2015). Contract cancelations might as well affect peoples’ attitudes towards life in different ways (Filipp, 1995). The effect might be positive, if the early cancelation is linked to positive career development, or negative, as it forces young people to readjust their career plans and to give up previous aspirations.
How people perceive and cope with CLEs is closely related to their core self-evaluations (CSE) (Judge et al., 1997). CSE are fundamental premises that individuals hold about themselves and their self-worth (Judge, Locke, & Durham, 1997). Positive CSE include four dispositional traits: high self-esteem, high generalized self-efficacy, internal locus of control, and high emotional stability (Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2002; Judge, Locke, & Durham, 1997; Kammeyer-Mueller, Judge, & Scott, 2009). Research has shown that CSE is a significant predictor for job and life satisfaction, happiness, lower perceived stress levels, and higher levels of life balance. Individuals with positive CSE appraise themselves in a consistently positive manner across situations. They see themselves as capable, worthy, and in control of their lives (Judge & Ilies, 2004). Hence individuals with low CSE might perceive critical life events as stressful and threatening, while those with high CSE don’t (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
The present contribution examines the effects of an early contract cancellation and how young peoples’ core self-evaluations can buffer possibly negative effects on their attitudes towards life one and two years after the contract cancellation.
We assume, first, that the effect of an early contract cancelation on young peoples’ attitudes towards life differs in relation to the type of educational career following the early contract cancelation. The effect is assumed to be positive in the case of positive career development, and negative in the case of precarious/negative career development.
Second, we assume that CSE affects attitudes towards life directly, such that high core self-evaluations are related to high positive attitudes towards life.
Third, we test, whether CSE buffer possibly negative effects of early contract cancellations. The negative relationship between early contract cancelation and attitudes towards life should be weak for individuals with high CSE, but strong for individuals with low CSE.
Finally, we assume that effects of the contract cancelation on positive attitudes towards life are strong directly after the cancelation, but level out two years afterwards.
Bimrose, J., & Hearne, L. (2012). Resilience and career adaptability: Qualitative studies of adult career counseling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 338-344. Filipp, S.-H. (1995). Kritische Lebensereignisse (Vol. 3. Aufl.). Weinheim: Beltz. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 693-710. Judge, T. A., & Ilies, R. (2004). Affect and job satisfaction: a study of their relationship at work and at home. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 661-673. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The Dispositional Causes of Job Satisfaction: A Core Evaluations Approach. Research in organizational behavior, 19. Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2009). The role of core self-evaluations in the coping process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 177-195. Schmid, E. (2009). Kritisches Lebensereignis „Lehrvertragsauflösung“. Eine Längsschnittuntersuchung zum Wiedereinstieg und zum subjektiven Wohlbefinden betroffener Jugendlicher. Bern: hep. Schmid, E., & Stalder, B. E. (2012). Dropping Out from Apprenticeship Training as an Opportunity for Change. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 117-130). Dordrecht: Springer. Stalder, B. E. (2003). Wege in die nachobligatorische Ausbildung. Die ersten zwei Jahre nach Austritt aus der obligatorischen Schule. Zwischenergebnisse des Jugendlängsschnitts TREE Schule, Arbeit, Ausbildungszufriedenheit. In (pp. 59-79). Neuchâtel: Bundesamt für Statistik. Stalder, B. E. (2011). Berufsausbildung mit geringen PISA-Lesekompetenzen: Ergebnisse der Schweizer PISA-Folgestudie TREE. In M. Fischer, M. Becker & G. Spöttl (Eds.), Kompetenzdiagnostik in der beruflichen Bildung – Probleme und Perspektiven (pp. 190-203). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Stalder, B. E. (2012). Kritische Transitionen in der beruflichen Grundbildung: Wenn Ausbildungswege nicht der Norm entsprechen. In C. Baumeler, B.-J. Ertelt & A. Frey (Eds.), Diagnostik und Prävention von Ausbildungsabbrüchen (Vol. 1, pp. 90-106). Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik. Stalder, B. E., & Schmid, E. (in press). Lehrvertragsauflösung und Ausbildungserfolg - kein Widerspruch. Bern: hep. Uhly, A. (2015). Vorzeitige Vertragslösungen und Ausbildungsverlauf in der dualen Berufsausbildung. Forschungsstand, Datenlage und Analysemöglichkeiten auf Basis der Berufsbildungsstatistik. Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung.
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