02 SES 04 A, New Learning in VET
Research has repeatedly shown that the quality of VET is closely linked to apprentices learning outcomes. High-quality apprenticeships encourage learners to finish their apprenticeship in due time, while low quality enhances their inclination to cancel their contract before graduation. High quality VET is defined by work and education conditions, which foster apprentices’ learning and motivation. High-quality VET can be defined by varied and demanding work activities, adequate opportunities to participate in decision-making, a suitable workload and sufficient support from trainers and teachers (Dehnbostel, 2007; Nägele, 2013; Velten & Schnitzler, 2012). Learners who perceive their training as varied and instructive, who can co-decide about the work content and execution, who are neither over- nor under-challenged and supported by competent trainers are more satisfied with their apprenticeship and less inclined to cancel their contract than other learners (Kälin et al., 2000; Quante-Brandt & Grabow, 2008; Stalder & Carigiet, 2014). Firms with contract cancellations are strongly committed towards the educational curricula and have a high motivation to train apprentices (Schumann, Gurtner, Forsblom & Negrini, 2014).
Learners whose apprenticeship contract has been terminated early often criticize the quality of VET. In their view, especially the quality of training in the company was insufficient, and the poor quality was one of the most prominent reasons for the early cancelation of the contract (Ernst & Spevacek, 2012; Hauschildt et al, 2010;. Masdonati & Lamamra , 2009; Mischler, 2014). According to studies from Germany learners justify their early cancellation significantly more often with the poor quality of training at the work place than with other reasons, such as a wrong occupational choice, the poor quality of teaching at vocational school, or personal reasons (Piening, Hauschildt & Rauner, 2011). In particular, they mention conflicts and communication problems with the trainer and their insufficient pedagogical skills as main reason for the early cancellation (Ernst & Spevacek, 2012; Hauschildt et al, 2010).
While the effect of VET quality on early contract cancelations is well documented, little is known about the relation of VET quality and the later career success of apprentices, which have experienced an early contract cancelation. Previous research shows that the majority of learners continue their education and training after the contract cancellation (Schmid, 2010, 2011; Uhly, 2015). Many re-enter VET without delay, others interrupt their education for some months or even years and take up a new apprenticeship after a later stage (Schmid, 2010).
This paper looks at the effect of VET quality on the later career success of apprentices, who have experienced an early contract cancelation. In particular, this research investigates, first, different types of Vet quality; second, different perceptions of apprentices and trainers about VET quality; and third, apprentices career success after an early contract cancellation.
The underlying assumption is that higher VET quality fosters apprentices’ re-entry into VET and later career success. It is assumed that learners in apprenticeships with high VET quality at the school OR at the work place feel on the one hand motivated to continue their VET and to obtain a VET diploma. On the other hand, as their (first) apprenticeship suited their interests and needs at least at one of the two learning sites, they might find it easier to readjust their career and find a new apprenticeship place than those with poor quality at both learning sites.
Bohlinger, S. (2002). Vorzeitige Ausbildungsvertragslösungen. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 98(3), 405-420. Dehnbostel, P. (2007). Lernen im Prozess der Arbeit. Münster: Waxmann. Kälin, W., Semmer, N. K., Elfering, A., Tschan, F., Dauwalder, J.-P., Heunert, S., et al. (2000). Work characteristics and well-being of Swiss apprentices entering the labor market. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 59(4), 272-290. Nägele, C. (2013). Correlates and predictors of apprentices' perception of their workplace as learning place. In S. Akoojee, P. Gonon, U. Hauschildt & C. Hofmann (Hrsg.), Apprenticeship in a globalised world. Premises, promises and pitfalls (S. 95-98). Münster: LIT Verlag. Quante-Brandt, E. & Grabow, T. (2008). Die Sicht von Auszubildenden auf die Qualität ihrer Ausbildungsbedingungen. Regionale Studie zur Qualität und Zufriedenheit im Ausbildungsprozess. bwp@, Spezial 4. Schmid, E. (2010). Kritisches Lebensereignis „Lehrvertragsauflösung“. Eine Längsschnittstudie zum Wiedereinstieg und zum subjektiven Wohlbefinden betroffener Jugendlicher. Bern: hep. Schmid, E. (2011). Lehrvertragsauflösungen im Kanton Zürich: Wiedereinstieg und Anschlusslösung. Zürich: Universität Zürich, Institut für Gymnasial und Berufspädagogik. Schmid, E. & Stalder, B. E. (2012). Dropping out from apprenticeship training as an opportunity for change. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström & M. Saarnivaara (Hrsg.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (S. 117-130). Dordrecht: Springer. Schumann, S., Gurtner, J.-L., Forsblom, L. & Negrini, L. (2014). Gute Ausbildungskultur verhindert Lehrvertragsauflösungen. Panorama, 2, 2. Stalder, B. E. & Carigiet, T. (2014). Ausbildungsqualität aus Sicht von Lernenden und Betrieben in der Schweiz. In M. Fischer (Hrsg.), Qualität in der Berufsausbildung – Anspruch und Wirklichkeit (S. 97-118). Bielefeld: Bertelsmann. Uhly, A. (2015). Vorzeitige Vertragslösungen und Ausbildungsverlauf in der dualen Berufsausbildung. Forschungsstand, Datenlage und Analysemöglichkeiten auf Basis der Berufsbildungsstatistik. Bonn: Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung (BiBB). Velten, S. & Schnitzler, A. (2012). lnventar zur betrieblichen Ausbildungsqualität (IBAQ). Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 108(4), 511-527.
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