02 SES 02 A, Reflections on VET: Looking to the Future
Why did VET expand in Switzerland and what elements were crucial that a dual model gained such an important role?
The focus of international comparative research in Vocational Education and Training (VET) is on the one hand on questions like policy borrowing, policy transfer or policy learning. Researchers in this field stress the fact that adaption of a model from outside is quite difficult and often not very sustainable. On the other hand the research on the establishment of VET is closely linked to a Varieties of Capitalism- and a pathway-approach, which helps to explain why established VET systems are so stable and different in different countries. A third strand is the cultural approach, which explains the development and national profile of VET through political and occupational cultures. All these perspectives rely on governance concepts and stress the importance of actors.
This paper is based as well on these assumptions, which are not seen as contradictory. Local and national actors play a decisive role in establishing and changing a VET system. Important is to fix up legislation process, which is open enough to integrate diverse interests.
The development of the dual system of vocational education and training (VET) was not the work of masterminds or the result of clear concepts but resulted out of individual measures. They unfolded so to speak evolutionarily and crystallized in the course of the 20th century. Elementary curriculum school reform, policy to meet the industrial needs and to support arts and crafts, social policy and political concerns about integration into nation as well as competition with foreign countries, were diverse layers, which helped to establish a VET system including work-based learning and schooling. These specific modes of VET flourish in the German-speaking countries and regions and are deeply rooted in the nation-specific political culture. This perspective is unfolded in this contribution by the case of Switzerland.
After some searching at the beginning of the 20th century, the predominance of the dual model of vocational education has become clear. “Workshop apprenticeship” had to be completed by school, after 1895 at the latest almost all actors agreed on this opinion. The decisive regulation mechanism, which made the “dual system” the general system in Switzerland, was the first law in 1930 on a federal level. This law reduced particularisms but set up an open framework, which integrated diverse interests of arts and crafts associations, unions, big industry companies and statist actors. In 1963, 1978, and 2002 further federal laws followed which set the ground for expanding VET in Switzerland, by integrating all non-academic professions and making the VET system more flexible. Furthermore the VET system today also opens up the way to higher education by offering pahtways to the Universities of Applied Sciences as well as to Higher Professional Vocational Education. Thus the VET system today (2014) includes 70% of 16-year old youth and is the strongest part of the Upper Secondary Level.
One significant step forward for vocational education resulted from the 1999 revision of the federal constitution and the amendment of 2006, which now, according to Article 63, entitles the Federal Government on a clear constitutional basis to regulate vocational education and indeed to become active, in cooperation with the Cantons, to establish an “educational space Switzerland” across all fields of education (BV 2006, Art. 61a). Besides the statist actors, the arts and crafts, industry and business assocations and the unions find a common ground for furhtering VET even today.
Berner, E, Gonon, Ph. & Ritter, H-J. (2011). Zwischen Gewerbeförderung, Sozialpo-litik und liberalen Bildungsbestrebungen – Zur ‘Vor‘-Geschichte der dualen Berufsbildung in der Schweiz. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik , 107 (1), 14-32. Busemeyer, M. & Trampusch, Ch. (2012). The Comparative Political Economy of Collective Skill Formation. In M. Busemeyer & Ch. Trampusch (eds.), The Political Economy of Collective Skill Formation (S. 3-38). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Euler, D. (2013). Das duale System in Deutschland. Vorbild für einen Transfer ins Ausland? Gütersloh: Bertelsmann-Stiftung Gonon, Ph. (2014) What makes the Dual system to a Dual system? A new Attempt to Define VET through a Governance Approach. bwp@, 25. Online: www.bwpat.de/ausgabe25/gonon_bwpat25.pdf Gonon, Ph. (2016). Zur Dynamik und Typologie von Berufsbildungssystemen - eine internationale Perspektive. In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 3,61,1-16 (in print) Offe, C. (1971). Berufsbildungsreform. Eine Fallstudie über Reformpolitik. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. Rauner, F. & Wittig, W. (2009). Synthesebericht und Handlungsempfehlungen. In Bertelsmann Stiftung (Hrsg.): Steuerung der beruflichen Bildung im internationalen Vergleich (S. 23-112). Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung. Richli, P. (2008). Berufsbildungsrecht. Auf dem Weg zum gleichberechtigten Spross des Bildungsrechts. In: Bauder, T. & Osterwalder, F. (Hrsg.): 75 Jahre eidgenös-sisches Berufsbildungsgesetz. Politische, pädagogische, ökonomische Perspektiven (S. 129-152). Bern: Hep Verlag. Verdier, E. (2013). Lifelong Learning Regimes versus Vocational Education and Training Systems in Europe. The Growing Hybridisation of National Models. In A. Green, G. Janmaat & Ph. Méhaut (eds.) Dynamics and Social Outcomes of Education Systems, Serie Education, Economy and Society. (S. 70-93). Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan. Weber, M. (1975). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. 5. Aufl. Tübingen: Mohr.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.