02 SES 06 A, Participation in CVET and Lifelong Learning
The complexity and rapid development of today's working environment requires continuing education and training (OECD, 2007). Participation in continuing education is of essential importance in career tracks, specifically for young adults that have graduated from vocational education and training (VET). The participation of VET graduates in continuing education is of interest to politics and economy too, because of shortage of qualified employees (Swiss Federal Council, 2015). The decision to participate depends on individual as well as structural aspects (Cross, 1981; Desjardins & Rubenson, 2013). Educational attainment expectation and values assigned to education represent individual aspects that encourage participation in continuing education (Gorges & Kandler, 2012). Structural aspects that either deter or foster participation are to be found in the individual family and job situation (e.g. child care, support by employer) as well as in institutional situation (e.g. social policy, family policy).
Individuals are constantly evaluating their situation, considering values, expectations, life transitions, barriers and opportunities, which evolves into an interplay of individual and structural aspects as described in the chain of response model (Cross, 1981). In this model, decision-making is seen as "a result of a chain of responses, each based on an evaluation of the position of the individual in his or her environment" (Cross, 1981, p. 125 ). During this evaluation, there are aspects that pull them away from the decision to participate in continuing education and others that draw them closer to participation (compare Cross, 1981, p. 128 ff.). Hence the overall decision-making process is characterized by an accumulation of forces for and against participation.
Besides participation in continuing education, after graduation another question arises in young adult's life regarding their future: The question of starting a family (Nurmi, 1992). Therefore decisions to participate in further education opportunities are often postponed. A Swiss longitudinal study showed that women stay absent from continuing education because of having children, what makes them less successful in their careers compared to men (Häfeli, Hättich, Schellenberg, & Schmaeh, 2015). Apparently and as seen in other studies (Abele & Spurk, 2011; Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005), transition into parenthood interrupts career track's continuity and participation in continuing education. In line with the chain of response model (Cross, 1981), it is expected that for individuals in transition into parenthood situational aspects like career opportunities provided by the employer are more important than for individuals not yet starting a family. This can be assumed because, as seen above, transition into parenthood deters them from participation. Hence, for a positive decision-making they need other forces that facilitate participation.
A recent study on career decisions highlights that family plays a role in career decisions not only after the birth of own children but also before. Already the anticipated incompatibility of work and family takes effects (Schwiter et al., 2014).
In this presentation, we aim to explain the intention to participate in continuing education against the above explained theoretical background for two groups of people: ones that are planning to have children concurrently and ones that do not plan to have children soon. As explained above, we hypothesize that individual aspects (values assigned to education and educational attainment expectation) as well as situational aspects (career opportunities provided by the employer) have a significant effect on intention to participate in continuing education in both groups. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the effect size of the situational aspect of career opportunities provided by the employer is bigger in the group planning to have children concurrently than in the group not planning to have children.
Abele, A. E., & Spurk, D. (2011). The dual impact of gender and the influence of timing of parenthood on men's and women's career development: Longitudinal findings. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(3), 225-232. doi:10.1177/0165025411398181 Christ, O., & Schlüter, E. (2012). Strukturgleichungsmomdelle mit Mplus: Eine praktische Einführung. München: Oldenbourg. Cross, P. K. (1981). Adults as learners: Increasing participation and facilitatinig learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Swiss Federal Council (2015). Bundesrat will höhere Berufsbildung stärken [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.news.admin.ch/message/index.html?lang=de&print_style=yes&msg-id=55887 Desjardins, R., & Rubenson, K. (2013). Participation patterns in adult education: the role of institutions and public policy frameworks in resolving coordination problems. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 262-280. Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 124-197. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.11.003 Gorges, J., & Kandler, C. (2012). Adults' learning motivation: Expectancy of success, value, and the role of affective memories. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(5), 610-617. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.09.016 Häfeli, K., Hättich, A., Schellenberg, C., & Schmaeh, N. (2015). Gründe für zunehmende vertikale Geschlechtersegregation im Erwachsenenalter. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften, 37(2), 342-360. Neuenschwander, M. P., Schaub, S., & Angehrn, F. (2007). FASE B. Familiäre Bedingungen von Schülerleistungen. Erhebung 2006. Dokumentation des Schülerfragebogens. Retrieved from Zürich: Nurmi, J.-E. (1992). Age differences in adult life goals, concerns, and their temporal extension: A life course approach to future-oriented motivation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15(4), 487-508. OECD. (2007). Understanding the social outcomes of learning: Executive Summary. Retrieved from Prümper, J., Hartmannsgruber, K., & Frese, M. (1995). KFZA. Kurz-Fragebogen zur Arbeitsanalyse. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 39(3), 125-132. Schwiter, K., Hupka-Brunner, S., Wehner, N., Huber, E., Kanji, S., Maihofer, A., & Bergman, M. M. (2014). Warum sind Pfl egefachmä nner und Elektrikerinnen nach wie vor selten? Geschlechtersegregation in Ausbildungs-und Berufsverlä ufen junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 40(3), 401-428.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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