02 SES 05 B, VET and Development of Competence
Previous research on media education generally focuses on the concept of media literacy or digital competence as general knowledge (Buckingham, 2003; Erstad & Amdam, 2013). Almost no research focuses on the vocational media education. Those studies that have been conducted have looked into the school-based part of the education (Erstad, Gilje, & de Lange, 2007; Persson Thunqvist & Axelsson, 2012). There is a lack of research in this field, and no studies have looked into the relevance of the school-based training compared with the needs for qualifications in different media enterprises.
The model for VET (vocational education and training) differs between European countries. However there seem to be many similar challenges concerning a lack of coherence between what is learned in school and the need for qualifications in workplaces (European Commision, 2012). The objective of this project is to generate knowledge about to what extent the school-based part of the curriculum in Norwegian vocational media education has provided students with relevant qualifications for an apprenticeship in various media enterprises, and look into possible mismatches. The research question is:
In what way has the education in school provided the apprentices with relevant vocational qualifications required in different media enterprises, and what coherence is there between learning in school and in the workplace?
The standard model for VET at upper secondary level in Norway is often called the 2+2-model. This refers to a dual school system divided into two years of school-based training followed by two years of apprenticeship in an enterprise. There is a national curriculum for the enterprise-based training period, and there is a Journeyman´s Certificate.
The few studies that have looked into the media program in upper secondary school in Norway show that the education is mainly practical, that the students learn relevant vocational competence through practical work with real media productions, and that the way the students work with the media productions are similar to ways of work with productions that are common in different media workplaces (Erstad et al., 2007). The way of organizing the education seems to have much in common with learning in a «reflective practicum» (Schön, 1987).
However, The Norwegian National Survey of Apprentices´ Learning for both 2013 and 2014 found that the apprentices within the media program are the least satisfied with school-based training as preparation for the apprenticeship period (Caspersen, Garvik, & Wendelborg, 2014). Thus, it is crucial to look into what might be the reason for this deficiency of coherence between the curriculum in school and the requirements of qualifications in media enterprises.
The theoretical framework of the study is aimed at understanding the issues of coherence and transfer in VET curriculum from various angles. According to Eraut (2009), it can be difficult to transfer knowledge from a school based setting to a workplace because of differences in context, culture, and modes of learning. There can be differences in schools and workplaces regarding what is seen as valuable knowledge and good practice (Tanggaard, 2007). Different stakeholders in the VET system have various interests (Billett, 2011; Young, 2004). Workplaces want WET-students with specific skills according to their tasks while the teachers and school leaders are concerned about the school subjects and the results for exams.
The concept of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991) looks upon learning as strongly embedded in participation in communities of practice. Even if the school-based education is organized as a reflective practicum (Schön, 1987), the school is a specific community of practice with specific values of what is regarded as valuable, i.e. doing well at exams.
Billett, S. (2011). Vocational Education: Purposes, Traditions and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer. Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2015). InterViews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (3rd ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage. Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods (4. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Buckingham, D. (2003). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. Cambridge: Polity Press. Caspersen, J., Garvik, M., & Wendelborg, C. (2014). Lærlingundersøkelsen 2014. Analyser av variasjoner og sammenhenger. (Rapport 2015 Mangfold og inkludering) Retrieved from http://samforsk.no/Publikasjoner/L%C3%A6rlingunders%C3%B8kelsen 2014 WEB.pdf Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches (3. ed.). Los Angeles: Sage. Eraut, M. (2009). Transfer of knowledge between education and workplace settings. In H. Daniels, H. Lauder, & J. Porter (Eds.), Knowledge, Values and Educational Policy: A Critical Perspective (pp. 65-84). London: Routledge. Erstad, O., & Amdam, S. (2013). From Protection to Public Participation. Javnost – The Public, 20(2), 83-98. doi: 10.1080/13183222.2013.11009115 Erstad, O., Gilje, O., & de Lange, T. (2007). Re-Mixing Multimodal Resources: Multiliteracies and Digital Production in Norwegian Media Education. Learning, Media and Technology, 32(2), 183-198. doi: 10.1080/17439880701343394 European Commision. (2012). Rethinking Education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/key-documents Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Persson Thunqvist, D., & Axelsson, B. (2012). "Now It's Not School, It's for Real!": Negotiated Participation in Media Vocational Training. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 19(1), 29-50. doi: 10.1080/10749039.2011.632048 Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass. Tanggaard, L. (2007). Learning at Trade Vocational School and Learning at Work: Boundary Crossing in Apprentices' Everyday Life. Journal of Education and Work, 20(5), 453-466. doi: 10.1080/13639080701814414 Young, M. (2004). Conceptualizing vocational knowledge: Some theoretical considerations. In H. Rainbird, A. Fuller, & A. Munro (Eds.), Workplace learning in context. London: Routledge.
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