16 SES 02 B, ICT and Language Teaching and Semantic Encoding
Today, nobody can claim that a language class that does not use some forms of technology serves for effective language learning/teaching. Recently, starting from kindergarten and reaching to higher education, technology has been used both to support and to enhance language education. Therefore, current language education policies show tendency toward utilizing different forms of technology to support instructional processes, to involve language learners in the learning process, and to provide authentic patterns of the target culture and different cultures as well. Furthermore, some forms of technological tools permit teachers to differentiate instruction (Tomlinson, 2001) and adapt classroom activities and homework assignments according to different needs and expectations of the language learners to be able to foster language learning experience. In sum, technology continues to grow in importance as a tool to assist instruction of foreign languages in facilitating and mediating language learning for the students.
Technology plays a supplementary role, which is determined and shaped by the human dimension, namely, students and teachers. It is an undeniable fact that integration of old and new ways of learning within a comprehensive way is highly crucial to be able to adequately meet the students’ needs and expectations. For this purpose, technology provides various authentic sources for teaching four skills of language (reading, listening, writing, and speaking); thus, the use of technology in language instructions has become vital in contemporary language education.
Through this study, it was aimed to seek for the effect of technology use on language instruction. To be able to pursue the quest for this claim, the following part will provide a historical perspective about the evolution of technology use in language teaching together with foremost attempts for integrating technology into the classrooms in Turkey. After that, a theoretical framework will be outlined to make the discussion more clear by mentioning about some important functions that are important for the use of technology in language teaching such as providing access to materials, providing communication opportunities, and fostering motivation. Later on, research conducted both abroad and Turkey will be given in detail to support the outlined theories. At the end, future directions for research on integration of technology into language instruction will be presented following the conclusion part in which a comparison between research in other countries and in Turkey will be offered.
Focusing on the issues of effectiveness, this review presents a meta-analysis of the specific applications of technology assisted language teaching that have been studied recently. The study is handled within three highlighted functions of technology use in language teaching that are present in international literature: access to materials, communication opportunities, and motivation.
Having access to engaging, authentic, and comprehensible materials (especially for listening and reading) in the target language is indispensable for successful language learning. However, whether in class or out of class settings, such accesses are often limited for many language learners. Therefore, this restriction is supposed to be wiped out with the help of information and communication technologies.
Secondly, engagement of learners into authentic communication (interaction) in the target language is another essential precondition for successful language learning; but most learners do not coincide with such chances of access. Typically, there are two groups of rationale to use ICTs: interaction with the computer and interaction through the computer with remote audiences (Zhao, 2003).
Lastly, learner motivation is another aspect through which language teaching becomes more affective. Therefore, as information and communication technologies are essential parts of language teaching today, whether they foster learner motivation is another issue open to discussion.
Bhatti, T., M. (2013). Teaching reading through computer-assisted language learning. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 17(2), pp. 1-11. Bhatti, T., M. (2013). Teaching reading through computer-assisted language learning. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 17(2), pp. 1-11. Gobel, P. & Kano, M. (2013). Implementing a year-long reading while listening program for Japanese University EFL students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(4), pp. 279-293. Green, A. & Youngs, B. E. (2001). Using the web in elementary French and German courses: Quantitative and qualitative study results. CALICO Journal, 19 (1), pp. 89-123. Sheng-Shiang, T., Hui-Chin, Y. & Shih-hsien, Y. (2014). Promoting different reading comprehension levels through online annotations. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), pp. 41-57. Tomlinson, C., A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Zhao, Y. (2003). A Comprehensive Review of Research on Technology Uses in Language Education. The CALICO Journal, 21(1), pp.7-27. Warschauer, M. (1996). Motivational aspects of using computers for writing and communication. In M. Warschauer (Ed.), Telecollaboration in foreign language learning: Proceedings of the Hawaii symposium (pp. 29–46). Honolulu, HI, U.S.A.: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Weyers, J. R. (1999). The effects of authentic video on communicative competence. The Modern Language Journal, 83 (3), pp. 339-349.
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