16 SES 04.5 PS, General Poster Session
General Poster Session
Professional growth is conditioned by teachers’ experience of mastery in their work. Therefore, it is interesting to study strain factors that are associated with teacher efficacy at maintaining order and discipline in technology-rich classrooms. The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that are associated with teacher efficacy at maintaining order and discipline in technology-rich classrooms. The Norwegian educational authorities have defined “using digital tools” as “a core skill” that is to be stimulated by schools (Ministry of Education and Research, 2014). In order to ensure continuous development of pupils' so-called core skills, the current demand for enhancing digital skills is integrated into the learning outcomes in the curricula of almost all academic subjects. To create an opportunity to realise these intentions, all Norwegian counties have established a system providing sixth-form pupils with access to computers at school, either through purchase or loan schemes. Computers are used in school as writing tools, for the gathering of information and for communication, and students are expected to make academic use of the Internet. Norwegian sixth-form colleges have thereby seen an equipment revolution in terms of accessibility to computers in the classroom. Each pupil has his own computer with internet access and some school districts expect these machines to be used often. This one-to-one laptop environment with full Internet access is named technology-rich classroom. Off-task activity on the part of pupils during lesson time is a recurrent problem (Blikstad-Balas, 2011) and represents a frequent challenge to teachers, whose work is often in the form of the teacher going through new material on the blackboard or guiding pupils in their individual or group-based studies. The physical design of the classroom includes the classroom artefacts. In the traditional classroom, the arrangement of the desks is physically designed to allow monitoring of pupils’ academic work. Desks are generally laid out in rows in order that each pupil can see the blackboard. This physical layout creates a challenge in terms of the teacher's ability to see whether the pupils are using their computers for the purpose of academic work or off-task behaviour. In the technology-rich classroom, classroom control of this kind is harder to maintain because it is more difficult to monitor the pupils’ behaviour. Teachers’ operational control is challenged by pupils’ access to computers with internet in the classroom. The data set comes from a survey of 156 teachers in Norway, and we used structural equation modeling. Stress has a negative association with teacher efficacy for classroom management. The association is negative (b(str1→secm)= -.09), but relatively weak. Conflict has a negative association with teacher efficacy for classroom management. The negative association (b(str2→secm)= -.23) is significant. Hypothesis supported. Perception of shortcoming is negatively associated with teacher efficacy for classroom management. The association is positive but not significant (b(str2→secm)= -.16). Hypothesis not supported.Practical skills re positively associated with teacher efficacy for classroom management. Practical skills development is not associated with an expectation of mastery in classroom management: (b(sop→secm)=.00). Teachers’ emphasis on practical knowledge rather than expert recommendations is positively associated with shortcomings, stress and conflict. Our study documents empirical associations between teachers' perceived shortcoming, stress, conflict, and teacher efficacy in respect of classroom management. We note that the average for teacher efficacy for classroom management (3.48) is lower than the neutral mid-point of the scale (which is 4), which provides an indication of the challenges encountered by teachers in these schools when they are to master class management in technology-rich surroundings. This should generate humility regarding teachers' work challenges.
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