08 SES 03 A, School Reforms, Curriculum and Wellbeing
This paper addresses two specific foci of the Special Call for Network 08: Research on Health Education, including the role that school reform has played in limiting the health and wellbeing education agenda in schools in Denmark and Australia and consequently how health and wellbeing education research has engaged with such reforms in Denmark and Australia. Recently in Denmark, the government initiated the biggest reshaping of primary and lower secondary schools in forty years emphasizing that 45 minutes of exercise and physical activity must be part of the integrated school day at all year levels in order to further the children’s and young persons’ state of health and to support their motivation and learning in all subjects. In the light of the focus on physical activity in schools, not only for health and learning but also for well-being, we launched a comprehensive research project focusing on the benefit of a multi-component physical activity intervention on well-being. This first part of this paper outlines the context, intervention and initial results of the project with a specific focus on the educator's experiences of the implementation of the intervention.
Public schools in Queensland, Australia also implemented a similar initiative in 2008 called “Smart Moves”, whereby students would participate in 30 minutes per day of physical activity during curriculum time. The second part of this paper argues that school reform, specifically the introduction of national testing regimes and State curriculum time mandates, limited school capacity to honour the requirement of daily physical activity and, as a consequence, most schools have backed away from such commitment. With the emphasis on national testing taking its toll on wellbeing and, ironically, increasing student disengagement from learning, the second part of this paper also examines the effectiveness of a recent social skilling intervention in Queensland public schools, in partnership with a local sporting club.
In interpreting students’ perspectives of the impact of the physical activity and wellbeing approaches in public schools, the Danish study draws upon theories of self-efficacy proposed by Ryan and Deci (2000), incorporating the basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness into the activity approaches. The analyses of Smart Moves daily physical activity and the Titans Learning Centre social skilling program drew upon Bernstein’s (1990; 1996) theory of pedagogic discourse, specifically the influences upon decision-making in state and pedagogic recontextualisating fields and instructional and regulative discourses in schooling – the pedagogic relay.
Bernstein, B. (1990) The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse, Volume, IV: class, codes and control London: Routledge. Bernstein, B. (1996) Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity. Theory, research, critique. London: Taylor and Francis. Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles SM (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework. Am J Public Health, 89(9), 1322-1327. Jørgensen, H. T. (2014). ”Ny viden giver svar, men også anledning til at stille nye spørgsmål”, In: Liv i skolen, nr. 1, 16. Årgang, pp. 29-35. Leow, A., Macdonald, D., Hay, P., & McCuaig, L. (2014). Health-education policy interface: the implementation of the Eat Well Be Active policies in schools. Sport, Education and Society, 19(8), 991-1013. Main, K. & Whatman, S. (2016). Building social and emotional efficacy to (re)engage young adolescents: capitalising on the ‘window of opportunity’. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20:10, 1054-1069. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2016.1145265 Naylor, P., Nettlefold, L., Race, D., Hoy, C., Ashe, M., Wharf, H. et al. (2015). Implementation of school based physical activity: a systematic review. Preventative Medicine, 72, 95-115. Quennerstedt, M. (2008) Exploring the relation between physical activity and health – a salutogenic approach to physical education. Sport, Education and Society,13(3), 267-283. Ryan R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. Skovgaard T. (2015). Physically active school 2020: New pathways and possibilities. Idrottsforum.org, 2015-03-18. Smedegaard S, Christiansen LB, Lund-Cramer P, Bredahl T, Skovgaard T (2016). Improving the well-being of children and youths: a randomized multicomponent, school-based, physical activity intervention. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1127. Smedegaard, S. (2016). Move for Well-being in Schools: Implementing physical activity in Danish Public Schools. Active & Healthy Magazine, 23:4, 30-35. http://www.achper.org.au/associationnews/volume-23-issue-4-2016-active-healthy-magazine Usher, W., & Anderton, A. (2014). Giving the teacher a voice: perceptions regarding the barriers and enablers associated with the implementation of Smart Moves (compulsory physical activity) within primary state schools. Cogent Education, 1(1), Whatman, S. (2016). A commentary on physical activity in Australian schools. MOV:E Børn og unge I bevaelgelse og leaering, Nr 4, 26-33. http://www.epaper.dk/jtoas/syddansk/4/ Whatman, S. & Main, K. (2016). Re-engaging ‘youth at risk’ of disengaging from schooling through rugby league club partnership: unpacking the pedagogic practices of the Titans Learning Centre. Sport, Education and Society, 1-15 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2016.1184135
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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