16 SES 08 A, Mobile Technology
This study (quantitative descriptive and qualitative hermeneutic) presents how students at a secondary school (grades 8 – 10) experience the use of tablets (iPad 1:1) in light of adaptive teaching, learning, and (social) inclusion in Norway. Norwegian teachers are to provide teaching that addresses the diversity of all students. It needs to be stressed that adaptive teaching is an educational principle for all students in Norway, for both special needs and mainstream children. The UN resolution for inclusive education is already in use in Norway. All students are taught regularly in one classroom. While the use of tablets in schools is a relatively new approach in Norway, there has been some research on their use (Caldwell & Bird, 2015) but little research has been done regarding the students’ point of view (Dhir, Gahwaji, & Nyman, 2013). Therefore, through the use of a student online survey and subsequent follow-interviews, the study’s primary focus is on the students' experiences.
The main research question (RQ) is formulated as follow:
“What kinds of approaches are used by teachers, when tablets are applied for adaptive teaching and inclusive education, and how do students experience its use?”
The main RQ is refined and broken up into three research questions: The first division, focuses on the use of tablets as a tool in adapted teaching and inclusive education (see RQ 1 and RQ 2), while RQ 3 belongs to the later part; that is, the student experience and learning practice with the digital tool.
RQ1. What kind of adaptive teaching does the individual student recognize/make use of for him/herself?
RQ2. Which kind of teaching approaches are used when applying tablets in the classroom?
RQ3. What impact does the introduction of tablets have on the students’ perception of their schoolwork and their perceived performance?
Objective and conceptual or theoretical framework:
The study’s purpose is to discover insights about adaptive teaching, when applying tablets across subjects. Specifically, does the use of tablets result in the students’ increased opportunities to solve and perform their learning tasks and processes? Specifically, does their own choice of the learning approach add value for their learning? In line with a socio-cultural and socio-constructive perspective on learning, the study focuses on how students can apply their skills, solve problems and express their knowledge by the use of tablets. The learning approach aims to support and foster student participation, peer-communication, and cooperation with other classmates. To learn with each other and from each other stresses the inclusive, adaptive and participative teaching objective. Teachers’ guidance was given by process-oriented approaches and formative assessment. The general objective was to describe teaching methods that support learning for mainstreamed and special needs students who struggle with language, reading and writing. This was done by teaching them together in one classroom!
The ideal of creating a school for all, regardless of background and dispositions has a strong meaning in the Norwegian educational system. Adaptive teaching approach, in this context, is both an ideal, principle, and a means to ensure equal opportunities for all (Damsgaard & Eftedal, 2014). Since 1975, adaptive teaching is a granted right in Norway. Teachers wish to fulfill this right, but they experience a gap between intention and reality (Damsgaard & Eftedal, 2015). Instructional computer technology (ICT) tools and their reflected didactical application may help to reduce this gap.
Caldwell, H. & Bird, J. (2015). Teaching with Tablets. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Damsgaard, H.L. & Eftedal, C.I. (2014). ... men hvordan gjør vi det? Tilpasset opplæring i grunnskolen. Oslo: Cappelen Damm AS. Damsgaard, H.L. & Eftedal, C.I. (2015). Når intensjon møter virkelighet – læreres erfaring med å tilpasse opplæringen. Bedre skole nr 1, 16-21. Dhir, A., Gahwaji, N. M. og Nyman, G. (2013). The Role of the iPad in the Hands of the Learner. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 19 (5), 706-727. Krokan, A. (2012). Smart læring. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. Krumsvik, R.J. & Jones, L.Ø. (2007). Digital kompetanse og tilpassa opplæring. I: R.J. Krumsvik (red.) Skulen og den digitale læringsrevolusjonen. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Loi, M. & Berge, O. (2015). Assessing the Effects of ICT on Learning Outcomes. Senter for IKT i utdanningen. Hentet 19.01.2016 fra:https://iktsenteret.no/sites/iktsenteret.no/files/attachments/assessingeffectsreport-digital.pdf Ludvigsen, S. (2005). Læring og IKT. – Et perspektiv og en oversikt. I: T. Brøyn & J.H. Schultz (red.) IKT og tilpasset opplæring. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Markussen, E., Carlsten, T.C., Seland, I. & Sjaastad, J. (2015). Fra politisk visjon til virkeligheten i klasserommet. Evaluering av virkemidlene i Ungdomstrinn i utvikling. Delrapport 2. Nordisk institutt for studier av innovasjon, forskning og utdanning. Lastet ned 10.10.16: http://www.udir.no/globalassets/filer/tall-og-forskning/forskningsrapporter/ungdomstrinn_i_utvikling_delrapport_2.pdf Mitchell, D. (2014). Hvad der virker i inkluderende undervisning – evidensbaserede undervisningsstrategier. Fredrikshavn: Dafolo Forlag. Nes, K., & Strømstad, M. (2001). Inkluderingshåndboka. (Handbook of Inclusion) Vallset: Oplandske Bokforlag. NOU 2015:8. (2015). Fremtidens skole. Fornyelse av fag og kompetanser. Oslo: Departementenes sikkerhets – og serviceorganisasjon, Informasjonsforvaltning. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
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