16 SES 03 B, ICT Professional Development
Providing appropriate education to children unable to attend regular school is challenging. Some students with disabilities or other health impairments receive educational services in a variety of settings, including alternative schools, residential psychiatric placements, hospitals, and home placements for short and long periods of time. The teachers in these alternative settings, including hospital schools, coordinate with the students’ home schools to ensure continuity of learning. In Australia hospital schools are typically small schools situated in regional hospitals that cater for school age children and are staffed by teachers under the jurisdiction of the local Department of Education.
The educational progress and social and emotional wellbeing of hospitalized students, can suffer because of displacement from regular schools, friends, and families. Hospital schoolteachers can help these students using a range of educational delivery options and coordinating with the students’ regular schools to maintain their learning and reduce the isolation and anxiety that disrupted schooling may cause. Mobile technologies offer opportunities for transformative change in teaching and learning in schools (Owen 2015) and are particularly appropriate for hospital schools which require communication with parents, collaboration with teachers at the schools where students were enrolled, knowledge and skills for meeting complex and challenging needs of diverse student populations and locations in hospital.
Recognizing these trends and the need to provide teachers ongoing, just in–time technological and pedagogical support inspired an Australian regional hospital school to look towards mobile technology platforms. The project’s focus was developed in response to a series of objectives identified during strategic planning and conducted by school staff. To improve learning outcomes for their students and reduce the gap between the technology-rich learning environment of students’ regular schools and the hospital school, mobile technologies and relevant digital pedagogies were introduced. The integration of mobile technologies to support learning requires specialized professional development for teachers that focuses on exemplary pedagogies (Laurillard 2012). While such professional development is important for classroom teachers, it is even more crucial for hospital schoolteachers who support vulnerable children (Maor and Mitchem 2015).
This qualitative research examined professional development efforts supporting effective integration of mobile technologies in a hospital school setting. It sought to examine how well the model of coaching developed met the unique needs of the hospital school with a specific focus on the role of the coach in facilitating teacher and student learning. The following research questions were addressed:
- What are the main contextual challenges and teacher needs?
- What specific coaching practices support teachers’ individual professional learning needs for successfully implementing mobile technologies in hospital school settings?
Mobile learning has emerged from the broader field of e-learning (Oakley et al., 2013) as a preferred way for learning and communication. The adoption of devices such as iPads and tablets in education settings has resulted in the development of learning environments in which the device, as well as the learner, are mobile.
High quality PD exists, and much is known about its requisite features of effectiveness, including actively engaging teachers in learning (Pierson and Borthwick 2010), developing collaborative communities (Sindelar and Brownell 2001), providing expert support (Zorfass and Rivero 2005), focusing on interventions that are practical, meet specific needs, and are aligned with local contexts (McLesky and Waldron 2004). Within the context of social constructivism Mishra, Koehler and Zhao (2006), argued that purposefully created collaborative communities should involve individuals with a variety of expertise and expectations so that all members benefit from the arrangement. Many researchers conclude that for teachers to use and integrate technology meaningfully, teachers must be guided by appropriate theoretical frameworks (Koehler and Mishra 2009; Puentedura 2012) with individualized job-embedded coaching (Yendol-Hoppey and Dana 2010).
Keane, T., Lang, C. & Pilgrim, C. (2012). Pedagogy! iPadology! Netbookology! Learning with mobile devices. Australian Educational Computing, 27(2), 29-33. Retrieved from http://acce.edu.au/journal/27/2/pedagogy-ipadology-netbookology-learning-mobile-devices Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70. Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York: Routledge. Maor, D., Mitchem, K., (2015), Can technologies make a difference for hospitalized youth: Findings from research, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31, 6, pages 690 - 705. McLesky, J., & Waldron, N. L. (2004). Three conceptions of teacher learning: Exploring the relationship between knowledge and the practice of teaching. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(1), 3-14. Mishra P, Koehler MJ, Zhao Y (2006) Communities of designers: a brief history and introduction. In: Mishra P, Koehler MJ, Zhao Y (eds) Faculty development by design: integrating technology in higher education. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte Oakley, G., Pegrum, M., Faulkner, R., & Striepe, M. (2012). Exploring the pedagogical applications of mobile technologies for teaching literacies: Report for the Association of Independent Schools of Western Australia. Crawley, Australia: The University of Western Australia. Retrieved from http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/2195652/AISWA-Report-FINAL-Final-101012-2.pdf Owen, S. M. (2015). Teacher professional learning communities in innovative contexts: 'ah hah moments', 'passion' and 'making a difference' for student learning. Professional Development in Education, 41(1), 57-74. doi:10.1080/19415257.2013.869504 Pierson, M., & Borthwick, A. (2010). Framing the assessment of educational technology professional development in a culture of learning. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 26(4), 126-131. Puentedura, R. R. (2012). The SAMR Model: Background and Exemplars. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2012/08/23/SAMR_BackgroundExemplars.pdf Sindelar, P. T., & Brownell, M. T. (2001). Research to practice dissemination, scale, and context: We can do it, but can we afford it? Teacher Education and Special Education, 24(4), 348-355. Traxler, J. (2010). Will student devices deliver innovation, inclusion, and transformation? Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 6 (1), 3-15. Yendol-Hoppey, D., & Dana, N. F. (2010). Powerful professional development: building expertise within the four walls of your school. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Zorfass, J., & Rivero, H. K. (2005). Collaboration is key: How a community of practice promotes technology integration. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 51-67.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
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Network 8. Research on Health Education
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Network 10. Teacher Education Research
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Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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