16 SES 04, Gaming
This research aims to study how Kinect Yoostar 2 game can be incorporated into English language teaching and what its impacts on developing speaking skills, learner autonomy, learner motivation and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are. Technology has been all around the stages of human life; and it has been widely benefited in educational grounds, especially language teaching classroom. Particularly, the benefit of using games in language teaching has been debated by the educational technology practitioners (deHaan, 2005b; Peterson, 2010; Thorne, 2008). Another technology, named Kinect, has come into the stages of educational classrooms in 2010. Though Kinect technology seems to be relatively new, it has attracted much attention since its first release, 2010. From language to education, even in navigation localization and mapping field, Kinect has been used as assistive material (Oliver, Kang, Wünsche, & MacDonald, 2012). Kinect is “ a motion sensor, implemented by Microsoft for the Kinect 360 video game console (Kanroudi&Tharreros, 2013, p. 2). It identifies individual players through face, body and voice. Supported by Kinect console, Yoostar 2 game fascinated its fans by the release in 2010. Enabling the gamers to be involved as actors of famous films such Forrest Gumps, Casablanca, 300 Sparta, Hang Over, etc. Yoostar caught a reasonable attention from the game audience. Describing yoostar 2 game, Wireless News magazine said that “using the magic of Kinect for Xbox 360 or the PlayStationEye, players insert themselves into famous movie and TV scenes, starring alongside or in place of their favorite actors.” (2011).
The researcher argued that Kinect Yoostar 2 game can be incorporated into English language teaching; and its impacts on developing speaking skills and also implications on learner autonomy, learner motivation and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence can be observed in an experimental research (experimental and control group design). As for components of the research, McDonough and Shaw (1996) explained speaking as “overall competence in the spoken language, not the oral production of written language” (p. 151). Hymes (1972) asserted that interaction should have some components affecting speaking effectiveness. In addition to having knowledge of speaking, person should also know what ways to start interaction with others. Thus, he improved the definition by saying communicative competence that refers to not only grammatical aspects of speaking but also contextual and sociolinguistic meaning (1971). Second, role play is defined by Tatayama (1998) as an activity used by some methods, which requires some cognitive demands for learners. According to Harmer (2001), role play activities can be planned to stress on enhancing general fluency and speaking for specific purposes. The third component is bodily-kinesthetic intelligence According to Gardner (1983, 1999) to do physical activities, people make use of this intelligence. Snider (2001) explained bodily-kinesthetic intelligence as “the ability to use the body to express ideas and feelings and solve problems” (p. 12). To coordinate body with mental abilities, people need to improve kinesthetic intelligence. Also, students can integrate kinesthetic intelligence into language learning. In addition, Mitchell (1982) explained motivation as “a psychological process that causes arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary and goal oriented actions” (p. 81). As the last one, Henri Holec (1981) described autonomy as “the ability to take charge of one’s learning” (p. 3). The research will study some points under these questions:
1. Does Kinect-oriented role play game make any contribution on developing English speaking skills in the experimental group comparing the control group?
2. How can Kinect-oriented game contribute to foster learner autonomy in English learning?
3. In what way does Kinect-oriented game in English language learning affect learner motivation?
4. Does Kinect-oriented game encourage students to use bodily-kinesthetic intelligence in language learning?
deHaan, J. W.(2005b). Learning language through video games: A theoretical framework, an evaluation of game genres and questions for future research Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. New York: Oxford University Press. Gardner, H. (1983). Mind frames. New York: Basic books. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Harmer, J.( 2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching.. Harlow, UK: Pearson. Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Hymes, D. (1971). On communicative competence. Philadelphia, PA: University of Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In Pride and Holmes (Eds.) Kandroudi, M., & Bratitsis, T. (2012). Exploring the Educational Perspectives of XBOX Kinect Based Video Games. In 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (p. 219). Academic Conferences Limited. McDonough, J. & Shaw, C. (1996). Materials and methods in ELT: A teacher’s guide.Blackwell. Mitchell, T. R. (1982). Motivation: New directions for theory, research, and practice. Academy of management review, 7(1), 80-88.New York: Basic Books. Oliver, A., Kang, S., Wünsche, B. C., & MacDonald, B. (2012, November). Using the Kinect as a navigation sensor for mobile robotics. In Proceedings of the 27th Conference on Image and Vision Computing New Zealand (pp. 509-514). ACM. Pennsylvania Pres. Peterson, M. (2010). Computerized games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning: A meta-analysis of research. Simulation & Gaming, 41(1), 72–93. Snider, D. P. (2001). Multiple intelligences theory and foreign language teaching(Unpublished doctoral thesis).University of Utah, Utah. Tatayama, Y. (1998). Explicit and implicit teaching of pragmatic routines: Japanese Sumimasen. In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Ed.), Pragmatics in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. Thorne, S. (2008). Transcultural communication in open Internet environments and massively multiplayer online games. In S. S. Magnan (Ed.), Mediating discourse online (pp. 305–327). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. Yoostar unveils 'yoostar 2'. (2011). Wireless News, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/856733419?accountid=9645
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