16 SES 03 A, Research on Teachers' Digital Competence and/or Integration of ICT in K-12 Education
Technology in education can mean different things, ranging from organizational issues, technological infrastructure, educational approach and user-oriented perspectives. The latter also include the competencies and skills related to the use of digital tools and technologies. Moreover, teachers' digital competence is crucial for students to succeed in their learning activities; teachers are to teach subjects with the use of technology and also promote and develop their students’ digital competence. Following this, Koehler and Mishra developed the TPACK-framework (Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge), to grasp these various competences and how they are interlinked (Koehler and Mishra, 2008). When reviewing studies on digitization of education linked to institutional and individual level, Tondeur and colleagues identified six areas as critical for successful implementation at the institutional level (2012, 2016). Those included planning for the use of technology, management commitment, cooperation and exchange of experience between the institution and locally at the institution, skills development among faculty members, access to resources as well as systematic approaches to change. Moreover, they also identified areas critical to ensure teachers’ use of technology in teaching and learning. Such areas were role models, collaboration, feedback, reflection, experience with preparation of classroom activities with use of technology (Tondeur, 2012). There is also a growing expectation that school principals and administrative staff at the schools should have competence to facilitate teachers’ dissemination and development of students' digital competence. As such, the school management responsibilities include providing the necessary technology and to ensure teachers professional development (Postholm & Waege, 2016; Postholm, 2012).
1:1 implementation Since the ‘one laptop per child-initiative’, which originated from the U.S more than 10 years ago, there have been an increasing number of 1:1 programs around the world. Some have been quite successful, while others have failed, and there have been various reasons for the success and the opposite. In 1:1 devices initiatives all students are equipped with portable devices, such as laptops, tablets, smartphones and the like for learning purposes (Balanskat et al., 2013). Previous studies on 1:1 implementation suggests various efforts in order to succeed. For example, to ensure that changes are ‘systemic and underpinned by pedagogical values’ (ibid, pp. 7). Moreover, studies on such initiatives have looked at learning outcomes, and changes in workstyles for students and teachers (Lindqvist, 2015).
Based on how previous studies have addressed what it takes to succeed with the implementation of digital technology for teaching and learning in schools, and in particular studies on 1:1 programs, the present paper will look at the role of school leaders and teachers within the first six months of the implementation of 1:1 laptops and tablets in a municipality in Norway. With this in mind, the research question posed were:
- How are schools prepared towards the 1:1 laptop/tablet initiative?
- How do teachers’ digital competence influence this process?
Our study comprises a municipality which have initialized a large project on enrollment of 1:1 digital devices for all students in the 24 schools (16 primary schools; 1-7 grade, and 8 lower secondary schools; 8 -10 grade). The students in 1-3 grade in all schools are provided with tablets, while the remaining students received laptops (Chromebooks).
The study runs for three years and covers several aspects of the implementation process, such as teaching and learning with digital resources and devices, competence development, institutional learning, development of digital competence and the like.
Balankasat, A., Bannister, D., Hertz, H.,Sigillo, W. & Vuorikari, R. (2013) Overview and analysis of 1:1 learning initiatives in Europe. Luxembourg, Luxembourg Publications Office of the European Union Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In J. A. Colbert, K. E. Boyd, K. A. Clark, S. Guan, J. B. Harris, M. A. Kelly & A. D. Thompson (Eds.), Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Educators (pp. 1–29). New York: Routhledge. Krippendorf, K. (2004). Content Analysis. An Introduction to its Methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Lindqvist, M., J., P. H. (2015). Gaining and Sustaining TEL in a 1:1 Laptop Initiative: Possibilities and Challenges for Teachers and Students. Computers in the Schools, 32:1, 35-62 Postholm, M. B., & Waege, K. (2016). Teachers' learning in school-based development. Educational Research, 58(1), 24-38. Postholm, M. B. (2012). Teachers’ professional development: a theoretical review. Educational Research, 54(4), 405-429. Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education, 59(1), 134–144. Tondeur, J., van Braak, J, Siddiq, F. & Scherer, R. (2016) Time for a new approach to prepare future teachers for educational technology use: Its meaning and measurement Computers & Education 94 (3) 134-150. Yin, R. (2009). Case study research. Design and methods. London, England: Sage
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