20 SES 04, Educational and Mentoring Practices Related to Integration and Acculturation – What Kind of Tensions and Hindrances Can Be Identified through Research Projects on these Topics?
Globalization relates, in part, to the rapid expansion and accelerated interaction of socio-technical systems, which include national economies, technologies, and movements of people across the world (Appadurai, 1996; Morris, Mok, & Mor, 2011). These three socio-technical systems together impact global connections on international and intercultural relations (Gries, Crowson, & Sandel, 2010). Their impact is particularly observed in areas in which foreign and local cultural elements (i.e., values, practices, norms, and axioms) coexist in many different contexts, such as workplaces, families, and classrooms (Appiah, 2006; Fu & Chiu, 2007).
Compared with the past, territorial identity plays a less-important role in defining individuals in the era of globalization; rather, many of the important identities in current society are, in fact, related to individual identity, such as family and occupational identities (Wang, 2015).
Therefore, a relevant issue that should be highlighted in research is to understand how globalization impacts individuals’ live (Chiu, Gries, Torelli, & Cheng, 2011) and set up mixing fluxes between and within cultures.
In everyday experiences, new foreign languages, cultures, and lifestyles interact, which result in transformed symbols that represent emergence of a new societal culture, and that influence our students. And, as true of any culture, this complex cluster of changes impacts individuals’ perceptions of self and others. However, there is a dearth of research on a theoretical understanding of how these global changes mix together to affect individuals and their context, and in particular in Higher Education students. Therefore, we propose the development of a theoretical framework to understand the concept of culture mixing and its dimensions among students in Higher Education.
According to Modood (2007) culture is a dynamic phenomenon “made through change” (p. 86) and for that reason seems important to examine the specific contexts and conditions in which culture changes occur (Gomarasca, 2013). These changes sometimes require a level of spatial and social proximity but that it is not always the case, in fact meaningful social interactions between individuals are all too often the exception rather than the rule.
In everyday experiences most people interact with individuals from different cultures transforming symbols that represent the emergence of a new societal culture. And, as true of any culture, this complex cluster of changes impacts individuals and others’ self-perceptions (Leman, Trappers, Brandon, & Ruppol, 2008). Therefore, in the proposed theoretical framework, it is pertinent to clarify that we propose that “Culture mixing” enables people to hold multiple cultural scripts and draw upon them as needed, it allows flexible switches in the way people interact with others, and understand cultures in the globalized world, as we see in international students. From this idea, we reflect on three aspects as key elements to develop the theoretical culture mixing framework: (1) the knowledge and interest individuals develop to different cultures, (2) the way individuals interact with others from different cultures, and (3) the external factors that may impact on individuals to change their own culture identity perception.
Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity Al Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Appiah, A. K. (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Chiu, C. Y., Gries, P., Torelli, C. J., & Cheng, S. Y. (2011). Toward a social psychology of globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 663-676. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01721.x Fu, H. J., & Chiu, C. (2007). Local culture's responses to globalization: Exemplary persons and their attendant values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(5), 636-653. doi: 10.1177/0022022107305244 Gomarasca, P. (2013). Multiculturalism or Hybridization? Cultural Mixing and Politics. Diversities, 15(2), 67-80. Gries, P. H., Crowson, M., & Sandel, T. (2010). The Olympic effect on American attitudes towards China. Journal of Contemporary China, 19 (64), 21-31. doi:10.1080/10670564.2014.932148 Leman, J., Trappers, A., Brandon, E., & Ruppol, X. (2008). Migration related socio-cultural changes and e-learning in a European globalising society. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 27(4), 237-251. doi: 10.1007/s11217-007-9073-z Modood, T. (2007). Multiculturalism. A Civic Idea. Cambridge: Polity Press. Morris, M. W., Mok, A., & Mor, S. (2011). Cultural identity threat: The role of cultural identifications in moderating closure responses to foreign cultural inflow. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 760-773. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01726.x Wang, Y. (2015). Globalization and Territorial Identification: A Multilevel Analysis Across 50 Countries. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edv022
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