16 SES 09 A JS, Reflections on Using Mobile Devices for Learning
Joint Paper Session NW 13 and NW 16
The use and integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools have increased the last two decades. In many schools in the western societies the uptake and use of ICT takes place in one-to-one (1:1) initiatives (Lindqvist, 2015). The 1:1 implementation means that the teachers and students are provided with individual digital devices. Several stakeholders are concerned with the effects of such implementation of technology on students’ attitudes, motivation and achievement. Motivation has been identified as one of the most vital driving forces for students’ learning and participation (Wlodkowski, 1985). Yet, to our knowledge there is limited access to studies that have investigated K-12 students’ motivation and mere ICT-related constructs, such as use of ICT, ICT self-efficacy, perceived usefulness of ICT or ICT literacy scores. Consequently, in the current study we examine the association between lower secondary school students’ motivation, ICT self-efficacy and ICT use in a one-to-one project.
In motivational terms the distinction of achievement goals relates to mastery goals that focus on developmental competence and performance goals focusing on demonstrating competence (Maehr, 1989). Furthermore, approach motivation relates to the expectance of a desirable or positive event, while avoidance motivation relates to the expectance of an undesirable or negative event (Elliot, 1999). Elliot and colleagues (Elliot, Murayama & Pekrun, 2011) have proposed a 2 X 3 model of achievement goals incorporating the distinction between task (objective), self (intrapersonal) and other (interpersonal) goals to the approach and avoidance distinction. ICT self-efficacy is a commonly used construct and aims at measuring the extent to which students believe in their own skills, and has been studied as a model for explaining motivation and behavior (Bandura, 1997). Bandura (2006) emphasized that self-efficacy is not a general (i.e., global) construct but should reflect the specific knowledge domain or relevant aspects of the activity that is supposed to be measured. In this study the concept of ICT self-efficacy describes students' confidence in their own capabilities to use ICT along four dimensions (e.g., information handling, digital communication and collaboration, problem solving and safety) which are aligned with competence areas in most common frameworks of ICT literacy (Ferrari, 2013).
Research have indicated that the effortless and enthusiasm an individual puts in to its tasks predicts achievements (Fredricks et al., 2004). In Skinner and colleagues (Kindermann & Furrer, 2008) theoretical model engagements consist of both emotional and behavioral components. Behavior engagement includes on-task behavior, academic behavior and class participation. Emotional engagement includes energizing states like enthusiasm, interest and enjoyment. Disaffected implies absence of engagement, absence of effort or persistence. Helplessness, coercion, exclusion and boredom might cause disaffected behavior. Disaffected behavior relates to passivity, lack of inition, lack of effort and giving up on task or activity. Disaffected emotion includes enervated emotion, alienated emotion and pressured participation (Skinner, Kindermann & Furrer, 2008). ICT use construct, and expect positive relations with ICT self-efficacy as reported in previous studies (Compeau & Higgins, 1995).
Students’ hwo have mastery goal orientation are also found to have high self-efficacy as well as more engaged in the learning proses (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000). Also, students that believe in their own ICT competence may also use ICT more. Hence, it is out of scope of this study to investigate the direction of these relations, yet, both constructs are applied to the model, and the relations between motivational factors and these two constructs are studied. In this study, we propose that approach goal orientation is associated with high ICT self-efficacy and avoidance goals are related with low ICT self-efficacy. We assume that high ICT self-efficacy are associated with students’ engagement and students use of ICT.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (Vol. 5., pp. 307–337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995). Application of social cognitive theory to training for computer skills. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 118–143. doi:10.1287/isre.6.2.118 Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3× 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 632. Ferrari, A. (2013). DIGCOMP: A framework for developing and understanding digital competence in Europe. In Y. Punie, & B. N. Bre_cko (Eds.), JRC scientific and policy reports. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2788/52966. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research, 74(1), 59-109. Håkansson Lindqvist, M. J. P. (2015). Gaining and sustaining TEL in a 1:1 laptop initiative: Possibilities and challenges for teachers and students. Computers in the Schools, 32(1), 35-62. Maehr, M. L. (1989). Thoughts about motivation. Research on motivation in education: Goals and cognitions, 3(1), 299-315. Pajares, F., Britner, S. L., & Valiante, G. (2000). Relation between achievement goals and self-beliefs of middle school students in writing and science. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(4), 406-422. Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. J. (2008). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children’s behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement. Wlodkowski, R. J. (1985, June). Stimulation. Training and Development Journal, 38-43.
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