08 SES 04, Opportunities and Challenges: Working for inclusion and wellbeing in education
The research is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) described by Ralf Schwarzer (2008). This model suggests that the adoption, initiation, and maintenance of health behaviours must be perceived as a process that consists of at least a motivation phase and a volition phase. The second phase might be further subdivided into a planning phase, action phase, and maintenance stage. Perceived self-efficacy plays a crucial role at all stages along with other cognitions (Bandura, 1997). Risk perceptions serve mostly to set the stage for a contemplation process early in the motivation phase but do not extend beyond. Outcome expectancies are important in the motivation phase when individuals balance the advantages and disadvantages of certain consequences of behaviours, but they lose their predictive power after a personal decision has been made. If a person does not believe in his/her capability to perform a desired action, he/she will fail to adopt, initiate and maintain it (Sniehotta et al., 2005; Sniehotta, 2009; Lippke, Zieglemann, 2008). The described model can be implemented in health promoters training, which is crucial in the context of health promoters responsibility for the change of their clients’ health behaviours (Green, Tones, 2013; Buijs et al., 2014). Consequently, this change may affect the social inclusion of health promotion clients (Tremblay et al., 2013).
- verification of efficiency of training methods and techniques used at promoters training and their impact on promotion/incorporation of healthy lifestyle by its participants in their private and professional life
- using the results of verification in creating standards needed in training health promoters
- What are the necessary components of health promoters training?
- What is the perception of health by the participants of training?
- What are personal, social and professional advantages of the training in the eyes of its participants?
- What are personal, social and professional risks related to the training in the eyes of its participants?
- How can the health promotion process contribute to the wellbeing and social inclusion of its participants?
The study is planned as the action research project (McAteer, 2013). The results presented in the paper are the outcomes of the first stage of research i.e. preliminary diagnosis (made at the beginning of the health promoters training). When the training is completed we plan to conduct the second stage of research including evaluation process. A technique of semi-structured, qualitative, problem-oriented interview, will be employed in qualitative research (Richards, 2015). In such an interview a respondent’s narrative is dominant, however a researcher can interrupt and ask additional questions. A problem-oriented interview is one of the most frequently used techniques. In general, researchers know what information they want to obtain but they do not impose their concepts on the respondents in order not to force them to say what the researchers want. A problem-oriented interview has to be run in a way which ensures, on the one hand, freedom of expression to the respondent, and on the other hand to make it possible for the researcher to obtain all necessary information about a specific subject. In case of this type of interview it is allowed to give some instructions, or implement a scenario including a short list of specific questions. The instructions should not establish a rigid framework of an interview but support a researcher. This method does not ensure obtaining objective information about facts but rather gaining knowledge about experiences, subjective interpretation of facts as well as perception and understanding of various phenomena by individuals. Instructions to be used in a Problem-Oriented Interview (authors’ tool) was applied in the research to help in execution of a selected technique. The Instructions concern five main areas: individual advantages, social advantages, individual risk, social risk, attitude to health. In order to complete and organize qualitative data SOFT Analysis was applied as a heuristic technique of analyzing information and putting it in order. It allows for using the data to establish a specific strategy. SOFT analysis sheet includes four assessment categories: Satisfactions/ Faults/ Opportunities/ Threats (Birkenmaier, 2001). The research sample consisted of pedagogy and psychology students taking part in a special course for health promoters. For the purpose of the training, students were divided into two groups cooperating with each other - facilitators and training patients, in order to prepare them for work with chronically ill people. Both groups of students took part in the research.
Collecting information about efficiency of promoters’ training is an expected outcome of the research project. The anticipated results include: • Cognitive outcomes: acquiring new knowledge, skills and competencies by participants of the training • Affective outcomes: internalization of health life style by participants of the training • Behavioral outcomes: using new knowledge, skills and competencies in private and professional life by participants of the training in order to enhance the social inclusion process of their patients with chronic illness (Sutton, 2005)
Bandura A.: Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman, New York 1997. Birkenmaier J: The Practice of Generalist Social Work. Routledge, New York 2001. Buijs G., Dadaczynski K., Schulz A., Vilaca T. (eds.): Equity, education and health: learning from practice. CBO, Utrecht 2014. Green J., Tones K.: Health promotion. Planning and strategies. SAGE Publications Ltd., London 2013 Lippke S., Ziegelmann J. P.: Theory-based health behavior change: Developing, testing and applying theories for evidence-based interventions. “Applied Psychology: International Review”, no.57, 2008, pp.698–716. McAteer M.: Action Research in Education. Sage, London 2013. Richards L.: Handling Qualitative Data. A practical guide. Sage, London 2015. Schwarzer R.: Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. “Applied Psychology: An International Review”, vol. 57, no.1, 2008, pp.1–29. Sniehotta F. F., Schwarzer R., Scholz U., Schüz B.: Action planning and coping planning for long-term lifestyle change: Theory and assessment. “European Journal of Social Psychology”, no. 35, 2005, pp. 565–576. Sniehotta F. F.: Towards a theory of intentional behaviour change: Plans, planning, and self-regulation. “British Journal of Health Psychology”, no.14, 2009, pp. 261–273. Sutton S.: Stage models of health behaviour. In: M. Conner, P. Norman (Eds.): Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models (2nd ed.). Open University Press, Maidenhead 2005, pp. 223–275. Tremblay M.C., Richard L. Brousselle A., Beaudet N.: Learning reflexively from a health promotion professional development program in Canada. “Health Promotion International”, vol. 29., no.3, 2013, pp. 538-548
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