17 SES 13, Paper Session
This paper aims at identifying and discussing the transmission processes of the musical capital in the Portuguese musical field, considering the flows of internationalization of music education: a) professional migrants, b) international students, c) gender minorities and equal opportunities. This is a specific perspective to understand the vocational music training system in Portugal, during the end of the 19th up to the second half of the 20th century, a chronology that is interrupted with the starting of the 2st world War, the violent conflict that stopped the flow of world-wide students to cultural capital such as Berlin.
Globally, this socio-historical approach aims at discussing the music vocational training system and the patters by which the musical professions were built into a specific elite. Using an extension of the terminology of Pierre Bourdieu, and focusing on the passage of the 19th to the early twentieth centuries, a period of expansion of the music learning, I use the term music capital, considering the specific cultural capital of the musical field, and the legitimate use of language, objects and technics restricted to this field (e.g., musical sheet). Symbolic capital intertwines with this specific capital, allowing for an elite to be legitimated.
Most of my previous work was an attempt to understand the successful paths of musician who lived in Portugal, but my question now aims at identifying the way that the Portuguese cultural field was related to the transnational paths, and not just until 1930, but from then onwards – who travelled, when, where to, what did he or she studied, with whom and in what institutions, and what do we know about the musical field absorption?
Specifically, it also tries to challenge the understanding of the roles of the social actors engaged in the teaching and learning musical processes:
In previous works, it has been emphasized the presence of many foreign musicians who settled in the country, sometimes creating dynasties; while at the same time it is a global phenomenon that training abroad has always been valued (Paz, 2014). In this sense, my general question is whether the field of music in Portugal was inclusive or whether the fixation of foreigners was merely accidental and instrumental. What sort of job opportunities could they obtain? Were they teaching? In private or in conservatories? Also, there were also Portuguese emigrants – did they settle there after or before they finished their studies? Were they still recognized after leaving the country never to return?
b) International Students.
Since there was no specific research policy until 1929, scholarships were casuistically, it would be important to understand if there were some changes with the creation of scholarships within the government agencies, such as the Junta de Educação Nacional (JEN, 1929-1936) and the Junta Nacional de Educação (1936-1937) (Rollo, 2012; Ó, 1999). Was there a difference of destination choices between the granted students and those who travelled at their families expenses? Was there some sort of reception policy on their return? Was the certificate they brought back important?
I would also like to cross-examine the idea of transnational inclusion with the gender issue. As several papers have hinted (Cascudo, 2017; Silva, 2017), the female musicians managed to get some highlight by the end of the 19th century. But also, as feminist critical research has pointed (Conde, 2003), this does not mean that they have changed their position of “dominated amongst the dominants” (Bourdieu, 1996; Igayara-Souza, 2011). How was the inclusion of foreign women included in the Portuguese musical field? Did they undertook leadership or supportive roles in the broadcasting processes, as teachers and mothers?
Methodologically, this research is grounded on a previous prosopography of the musical elite - also known as collective biography – about the well-known musicians that were active in the country, between 1930-1930. This exercise is built upon ad hoc criteria, following Burke (2006) and Charle (1996), using the 2 main dictionaries about Portuguese musicians (Vieira, 1900, Castelo-Branco, 2010). To be able define who was part of the elite in strictly musical terms and who was not - which is to say who was recognized as a successful learner, means that the use of other sources may reveal or underline different traits in these elite building patterns. These dictionaries were my main source, but whenever possible, data was revised and corrected with the help of other secondary and also primary sources. The criteria was to read all the texts and identify those who musicians who were born or lived in the country. I reached a first number of 460 musicians that performed in Portugal between 1868 and 1930. I isolated a few variables that helped to rebuilt social, musical and educative context for musical learning, and thus allowing to know better the Portuguese musical elites and their specific patterns of cultural heritage. I am now both enlarging the chronology up to 1940 and detailing the categories. Besides the use of these dictionaries, other primary and secondary sources were used to compose the musicians’ biographies. I now expect to be able to use other visual and sound sources, such as photographs and music recordings – namely those that were produced in abroad. Broadening the chronology up to the 2nd World War is essential to capture new sources - Are there recordings of the studying periods? Photos? Films? Where were they published?
In this context, the observation of the trajectories allowed, from the outset, to confirm a profile of rarefaction of the opportunities of learning and development of a career. A recognition profile is identified. The well-succeeded musician is describe as: male, coming from a family of musicians, willing to undertake a career, former student in institutions specially protected by the State and the main musical families, usually also with a final formation abroad (sometimes a grant holder). The collective biography of Portuguese musicians makes particularly visible the relationship between the school and the family protection of future musicians in the cases of immigrant families. My first estimation was more than 20% of the musicians mentioned as recognized were of foreign origin, both in migrant flow and already established in the country. In fact, many of these musicians settled and created dynasties. Undoubtedly, from this perspective, musical teaching and learning was linked to a family craft, with a strong impact of the paternal profession as a musician or professional liberal. There is also a transformation of life into an artist's life, when in the arrangement of this family life, for example, the spouses belonged not infrequently to the musical world; naturally the children would be the extension of this education in familiarity with a musical practice. But this does not mean that the Portuguese musical field was altogether inclusive, and this is where I’d like to continue this discussion.
Bourdieu, P. (1996). As regras da arte. Lisboa: Presença Bourdieu, P. (2001). O poder simbólico. Lisbon: Difel. Burke, P. (2006). The Italian Renaissance: Culture and society in Italy. Cambridge: Polity. Castelo-Branco, S. (dir.ª). 2010, Enciclopédia da música em Portugal no século XX, 4 vols. Lisbon, Círculo de Leitores/Temas e Debates. Cascudo, T. (2017). The musical salon of the countess of Proença-a-Velha in Lisbon: A case of Patronage and Activism at the turn of the 20th century. Nineteenth Century Music Review, 14, 195-210. Charle, C. (1996). Les intellectuelles en Europe au XIXème siècle: essai d’histoire comparée. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. Conde, I. (2003). Making distinctions: Conditions for Women working in serius music and in (new) Media Arts in Portugal. In M.L. Lima, Culture Gates (pp. 255-323).Retrieved at: http://www.culturegates.info/down/cg_portugal.pdf Ó, J. R. (1999). Os anos de Ferro. O dispositivo cultural durante a ‘Política do Espírito’ (1933-1949). Lisbon: Editoria Estampa. Paz, A. (2014). Ensino da Música em Portugal (1868-1930): Uma história de pedagogia e do imaginário musical (Tese de doutoramento). Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal Rollo, M.F.; Queiroz, M.I; Brandão, T. & Salgueiro, Â. (2012). Ciência, Cultura e Língua em Portugal no Século XX. Da Junta de Educação Nacional ao Instituto Camões. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda. Silva, M.D. (2017). O Orpheon Portuense no contexto das sociabilidades musicais eruditas em Portugal: notas para um roteiro de pesquisa. In H. Araújp (coord.), A Sociedade Orpheon Portuense (1881-2008): Tradição e inovação (pp. 102-111). Oporto: Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Vieira, E. (1900b). Dicionário biográfico de músicos portugueses: História e bibliografia da música em Portugal, 2 vols. Lisbon: Tipografia Matos Moreira & Pinheiro.
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