17 SES 08, Paper Session
At the end of the 19th century, the ideological orientation between teachers was given a comparable European image of the variety of Catholic, liberal and even social-democratic teachers. Especially important were also linguistic issues (especially Slovene-German). The article explores how these directions have been shaped in the form of societies and newspapers, and analyzes how the attitude towards those who thought differently and their inclusion / exclusion was reflected in school political and pedagogical topics.
Since the end of the 19th century, the liberal political orientation prevailed among Slovene teachers, while Catholic-oriented teachers were in minority, most numerous in Carniola (in central Slovenia). Majority of the population was rural and supported political Catholicism. Very rare teachers were oriented social-democratic. Since 1896, for few years we can only speak about the "social-democratic episode" between Slovenian teachers, especially in the lower Styria. Teachers sympathized with socialism because of their poor material status.
The paper shows how the changes after the elections in 1908 replaced the regional political authority (the provincial government, Carniolan provincial assembly in Ljubljana). Instead of the coalition of German powerful landowners and Slovenian liberals, which has been decisive for many years, the authority in the central Slovene country was taken over by the Catholic party. The paper presents how the leading position of liberal teachers, which was replaced by the better position of Catholic-oriented teachers, changed in the new political reality, and how those who thought differently were accepted. Although most of the teachers were liberal-oriented, after the victory of the Catholic party, the number of members of the Catholic Teachers' Organization increased. In the integration / exclusion of teachers the issue of language of instruction and private school societies which maintained schools of different language orientations (Italian, German, Slovenian, Croatian) was also important.
Another form of integration was the geographical association of teachers in Slovene as well as Slavic-speaking countries which can be followed through the places of teachers’ assemblies (from the international port of Trieste or the main military port of Pula to cities that also had an important part of German-speaking population (Maribor, Celje) and the integration of all Slavic teachers in the Monarchy, especially those in Istria and Dalmatia.
The article will also draw attention to the inclusion of female teachers in school work, which has successfully brought the general literacy of Slovenes. Attention is drawn to the attitude towards the inclusion of children with special needs (courses and lessons for the deaf, the blind). The question is also how Slovenian pedagogical journals included pedagogical ideas from the South German territory and, of course, specifically from Vienna, and what the considerations of inclusion / exclusion during the First World War were. At the end of 1918, Slovene lands were included in the new state framework of four countries: the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Italy, Austria and Hungary. The school situation of Slovenes was very different.
The paper compares the writing of the Catholic pedagogical journal Slovenski učitelj/Slovenian Teacher and the liberal-oriented Učiteljski tovariš/Teachers' Commrade in the last two decades of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In addition to the pedagogical press, we also take into account the preserved archives of societies (Association of Slovene Teachers' Societies / Association of Austrian Yugoslav Teachers' Societies) and with special attention we follow the position of teachers and the inclusion / exclusion of those who thought differently in the geographical, political or pedagogical field. In particular, we take into account the inclusion / exclusion of special features of the period of the First World War. The European framework represents a multinational Monarchy, as in other parts of Europe, various conceptual orientations and education in several languages.
Questions of Inclusion & Exclusion (political view) - Analysis of position of Catholic and Liberal orientation teachers in central Slovenia at the end of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in last 20 years
Archives sources: Slovenski šolski muzej (Slovenian School Museum, Ljubljana, archives collection (Zaveza avstr. jugoslovanskih učiteljskih društev Union of austrian yugoslavian teachers societies 1888-1921; fasc. 96: Society of Women Teachers /Društvo slovenskih učiteljic) Journals: Učiteljski tovariš /Teachers Commrade 1898-1918; Slovenski učitelj /Slovenian teacher 1899-1918; Popotnik/ Traveller 1898-1918; M. Divjak, Emancipacija slovenskih učiteljev / Emancipation of Slovenian teachers 1869-1914, Časopis za zgodovino in narodopisje / Review for History and Ethnography, 1, (66=31), Maribor: 1995, 126-165. – W. Drobesch, Deutsche Schulverein, njegova ideologija, notranja struktura in delovanje s posebnim ozirom na Slovenijo / Der Deutsche Schulverein 1880-1914: Ideologie, Binnenstruktur und Tätigkeit einer (deutsch)nationalen Kulturorganisation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Sloweniens / Zgodovinski časopis / Historical Review 46, No. 2 (1992), 187-196. https://www.dlib.si/?URN=URN:NBN:SI:doc-W26DJKVV . - H. Engelbrecht, Geschichte des österreichischen Bildungswesens, Erziehung und Unterricht auf dem Boden Österreichs, Band 4, Von 1848 bis zum Ende der Monarchie, Wien: ÖBV 1986.- L. Jelenc, Petindvajsetletnica Zaveze avstr. jugoslovanskih učiteljskih društev /The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Union of Austrian Yugoslavian Teachers' Societies , Ljubljana 1913. - V. Melik, Slovenci / Slovenians 1848 – 1918, Maribor 2002. - Osnovna šola na Slovenskem 1869-1969 / Primary school in Slovenia (edit. V. Schmidt, V. Melik, F. Ostanek), Ljubljana 1970. - M. Stiplovšek, Razmah strokovnega – sindikalnega gibanja na Slovenskem 1918-1922 / Development of professional-trade movement in Slovenia, Ljubljana, 1979. - V. Schmidt, Socialdemokratska epizoda med slovenskimi učitelji / A socialdemocratic episode among Slovenian teachers, Sodobna pedagogika, 7-8, 1968, pp. 308-328. B. Šuštar, Učiteljske organizacije na Slovenskem in njihova idejna usmeritev od srede 19. do sredine 20. stoletja/ Teachers' organizations in Slovenia and their conceptual orientation from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, Šolska kronika / School Chronicle, 2001, št. 2, 329-339. - B. Šuštar, Verska šola in liberalni duh učiteljev. Z 'Učiteljskim tovarišem' o liberalni in katoliški usmeritvi slovenskega učiteljstva konec 19. stoletja/ Konfessionelle Schule und liberale Gesinnung der Lehrer. Die liberale und die katolische Ausrichtung der slowenischen Lehrerschaft Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, ermittelt auf Grundlage des Blattes "Učiteljski tovariš", Melikov zbornik, Ljubljana 2001, 635-654. - B. Šuštar, The role of Catholic oriented women teachers in Slovenia in the first quarter of the 20th century in particular the activity of members of the "Slomškova zveza/Slomšek Union" , Gynaikes sten istoria ton Balkanion : istories zoes gynaikon ekpaideytikov = Women in the history of Balkans : life stories of women teachers (ed. Sidiroula Ziogou-Karastergiou), Thessaloniki 2010, 79-94. - B. Šuštar, Slovene women teachers and their contribution to cultural, national and social development, Slovene women in the modern era (ed. Mateja Tominšek Perovšek) Ljubljana 2012, 45-49. -
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