08 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 08
General Poster Session
The contribution will present the theme of dissertation.
The aim of the dissertation is to analyse changes in social context among contemporary society and its impact on the specifics and conditions of the teacher's work. The aim of the research is to identify areas and intensity of stress factors and dilemmas affecting teachers, that are a potential source of professional moral distress, and to create a research tool for measuring these areas. This phenomenon has not yet been detected and measured among Czech teachers. To find these specifics out, a questionnaire detecting professional moral distress among teachers will be created.
Today's society and all changes it makes brings more and more moral dilemmas to the teacher's job. (Mareš, 2017) These situations influence the attitude of teachers’ work towards themselves and they also shape their personalities. The situation in which a person / teacher is confronted with the necessity to decide (a moral dilemma appears), occurs in helping professions mainly (Mareš, 2017). Such situations certainly do appear in real life scenarios on a regular basis. However, in profession, they have a professional level of decision-making and they are also related to professional honour, professional beliefs, etc., which may be linked with stronger stressors. People who practice these professions often experience negative stress during the decision making process. Negative stress is called distress. If the situation is morally difficult, this kind of distress is called moral distress. If moral distress is experienced in situations connected to profession, we call it a professional moral distress. Moral distress was first defined in 1984 by American Andrew Jameton, who dealt with the question of ethics in nursing profession: "Moral distress arises in situations in which an individual can tell the what the right thing is to do but institutional barriers make it almost impossible to act in the right way." (Mares, 2016)
Moral distress is also investigated among healthcare professionals abroad. The phenomenon of moral distress in this professional category is measured by the Moral Distress Scale - MDS (Corley, 2001). This tool consists of 22 items that provide questioning of health workers about the moral situation they could encounter in their work. The last item gives space for describing other situations in which the interviewed person could have felt moral distress. Respondents respond in two dimensions: to the intensity of the load and to the frequency of the situation occurrence. Each answer is expressed by using the Likert scale 0-4 (never - very frequently). The last two queries, which are not answered by using the Likert Scale, determine whether the respondent has ever considered abandoning his profession or whether he or she is considering it now.
Specific research results were found in the Oha and Gastmanse Survey (2015) realized between 1984 and 2011. It analysed the moral distress of nurses by using the qualitative research. There were 19 researches who participated on this research and the authors found negative coping with professional moral distress situations (leaving the profession or consideration of leaving the profession) in 6 particular cases. (Mares, 2016) As Vašutová and Urbánek (2010) write, professional ethical contradictions arise in schools, concerning situations in which teachers are forced to defend their educational values within the school against the harsh dynamics of the outside world that continues to impact these values and attempts to change them.
Research Methods: In-depth semi-structured interview, moral distress scale (MDC), observation. In our research, we want to create an instrument that would detect professional moral distress among teachers of primary schools. Questioning will focus on the area of conflict situations in teachers’ work that is most likely to be the source of professional moral distress. The structure of questionnaire will be based on free teacher’s testimonies from their practice. The teachers' testimonies were gained from the data provided by in-depth semi-structured interviews. Observing teachers in the process of their teaching will help us to illustrate the idea of their perception and their response to the professional moral situation. There have been seventeen interviews done with grammar school teachers so far. Each interview consisted of these four questions: Describe situation containing any ethical problem or moral dilemma you experienced in your work. Describe situation containing any ethical problem or moral dilemma your colleagues experienced in their work. Provide three examples of situation in which you exceeded your personal limits of ethics. Give any reason for your breaking the ethical limits set in your profession. Provide three examples of ethically challenging moments you experienced in your work. Answers gained from these interviews are used as a prep material for the questionnaire. As a model for this questionnaire will stand the MDS questionnaire. Its structure will be based on situations gained from interviews mentioned above and the answering mechanism will be provided by the Likert Scale (0 – 4), measuring the frequency of a given situation and moral burden related. The final part of the questionnaire will leave a space for teachers’ experiences different for those ones presented. Like the MDS questionnaire, it will also contain the question for respondents of considering ending up their teaching career.
The source of professionally moral dilemmas can be the decision-making determination of the educational policy, the pressure of school management, colleagues or pupils' parents. It will be difficult to create this tool, because every person is individual. Everyone is sensitive and receptive in a different way and to different degree. People have different moral values and they solve various situations in their own way. Solving the moral situation is certainly dependent on the length of practice or an age. Despite this fact, it is important to create this research tool and gradually upgrade it with further knowledge that could influence the respondents. Five various areas of teachers’ profession moral dilemmas experiencing can be presupposed from gained answers – moral disagreement between teacher, pupil and pupil’s parents, between teacher and school government, among teacher’s colleagues, between teacher and society and in teachers’ ability to face stress in work. These five areas provide material for the questions for respected questionnaire tool.
Corley, M. C., Elswick, R. K., Gorman, M., et al. (2001). Development and evaluation of a Moral Distress Scale. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(2), s. 250–256. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01658.x Jameton, A. (1984). Nursing practice: the ethical issues. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Kant, I. (1992). Základy metafysiky mravů. Praha. Mareš, J. (2017). Morální distres školních psychologů. Pedagogická orientace, 27(2), s. 308–343. Mareš, J. (2016). Morální distres učitelů – skrytý problém. Pedagogika, 67(1), s. 27-55. Oh, Y., & Gastmans, C. (2015). Moral distress experienced by nurses: A quantitative literature review. Nursing Ethics, 22(1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733013502803 Vašutová, J., Urbánek, P. (2010). Učitel v současné ZŠ: hledání mezi změnou a stabilitou. Orbis scholae, 4(3),79-91.
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