02 SES 02 A, Inclusion of Disadvantaged Individuals
In the dual VET-systems in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, specific programmes have been developed to ensure participation of disadvantaged youths in VET and subsequently in the labour market. These are the two-year apprenticeships with Federal VET Certificate in Switzerland, the two-year apprenticeships in Germany and the Inclusive Vocational Training in Austria. All three of them have in common that they require specific entry premises and lead to standardized qualifications which are asked for and accepted in the labour market. All of them also offer specific forms of support measures to ensure entry as well as successful course and completion of training (Becker, Kammermann, Spöttl & Balzer, 2017).
In Switzerland, the introduction of the two-year apprenticeship with Federal VET Certificate under the Swiss Vocational Training Act represented a shift in paradigm by standardizing the former individualized elementary training for low achieving youths at national level. The two-year apprenticeship focuses on practical activities and includes support measures if needed (Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 2002; Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation, 2014). Approximately nine percent of all IVET degrees are VET Certificates. Two-year apprenticeships are offered in 57 professions (of a total of approximately 240 professions) (Kammermann, 2017).
The German Vocational Training Act defines the duration of VET programmes in Germany as “not longer than three and not less than two years” (Bundestag, 1969, §5(1)). Two-year apprenticeships have a long tradition, having already been introduced in individual professions in 1940. They are aimed at low achieving, mainly practically talented youth and offer a theory-reduced training. Two-year apprenticeships are offered in 28 professions (of a total of approximately 300 professions) (Kroll, 2017).
In Austria, the number of young people who are either trained within a prolonged apprenticeship scheme (according to §8b(1) of the Austrian Vocational Training Act) or in the form of a partial qualification (according to §8b(2) of the Austrian Vocational Training Act) (Bundesminister, 1969) has been rising continuously. One specific strength of Inclusive Vocational Training in Austria is that in the prolonged apprenticeship scheme disadvantaged youths do not get less but more time for education and training. Further strengths are a clearly defined access control - exclusively for young people with specific disadvantages/needs -, an adaptation to individual needs and a support offered by a specific social, pedagogical, and psychological assistance structure (Dornmayr, 2017).
With regard to the three programmes, it is important to address the following questions:
- which are the specific characteristics of the learners in the programmes?
- is a reduction of the programme duration a silver bullet to facilitate the access to a profession for disadvantaged youths?
- what support measures facilitate entry as well as successful course and completion of training?
- do they foster employability and upward mobility?
- which is the acceptance of professions, for which the duration of training is extended rather than shortened?
The aim of this paper is to empirically answer these questions for the three VET programmes and to elaborate factors of success and failure. This is done by a meta-analysis of representative research results relating to the programmes.
The results show communalities as well as differences for the programmes in the three countries, as for example: • in all three countries the programmes are aimed at disadvantaged young people and succeed in including them • the Austrian Inclusive Vocational Training offers a highly suitable individual adaptation to the specific needs of the young people • in Germany, upward-mobility in three-year apprenticeships is prevalent, employability is rather low • in Switzerland, upward-mobility and employability are ensured for the majority
Becker, M., Kammermann, M., Spöttl, G., & Balzer, L. (Hrsg.) (2017). Ausbildung zum Beruf. Internationaler Vergleich der berufsförmigen Ausbildungskonzepte für benachteiligte Jugendliche. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Bundestag (1969). Berufsbildungsgesetz BBiG. https://www.bibb.de/dokumente/pdf/bbig_1969.pdf (retreived 31.01.2018). Bundesminister (1969). Berufsausbildungsgesetz BAG. https://www.jusline.at/gesetz/bag (retreived 31.01.2018). Dornmayr, H. (2017). Ausbildungen gemäss §8 BAG (Lehrzeitverlängerung und Teilqualifizierung) für benachteiligte Jugendliche in Österreich. In M. Becker, M. Kammermann, G. Spöttl, & L. Balzer (Hrsg.). Ausbildung zum Beruf. Internationaler Vergleich der berufsförmigen Ausbildungskonzepte für benachteiligte Jugendliche. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, S. 29-43. Kammermann, M. (2017). Die Entwicklung der zweijährigen beruflichen Grundbildungen mit Eidgenössischem Berufsattest (EBA) in der Schweiz. In M. Becker, M. Kammermann, G. Spöttl, & L. Balzer (Hrsg.). Ausbildung zum Beruf. Internationaler Vergleich der berufsförmigen Ausbildungskonzepte für benachteiligte Jugendliche. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, S. 11-28. Kroll, S. (2017). Von der Schule in die duale Ausbildung: Unterschiedliche Wege benachteiligter Jugendlicher in Deutschland und die Bedeutung zweijähriger Ausbildungsberufe. In M. Becker, M. Kammermann, G. Spöttl, & L. Balzer (Hrsg.). Ausbildung zum Beruf. Internationaler Vergleich der berufsförmigen Ausbildungskonzepte für benachteiligte Jugendliche. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, S. 75-92. Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (2002). Bundesgesetz über die Berufsbildung vom 13. Dezember 2002 (Stand am 1. Januar 2013). Bern: Bundeskanzlei. Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation (2014). Zweijährige berufliche Grundbildung mit eidgenössischem Berufsattest. Leitfaden. Bern: SBFI.
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