17 SES 16, Up North and Down Under: Cases of inclusion/exclusion in innovative learning environments across hemispheres
The idea that the New Zealand education system will cater to all students, regardless of ability, and to support them in developing their full potential to the best of their abilities, is enshrined in the famous 1939 Beeby/Fraser “to the fullest extent of his (sic) powers” statement (quoted by Alcorn, 1999, p. 99). This focus on equality of access persisted for a half century, until the reforms of the mid-1980s, which shifted discourse to equality of outcomes (Benade, 2012). In recent years, this discourse has come to be characterised by references to preparing students for success in the globalised, 21st century knowledge economy (Ministry of Education, 2016a). In this context, the design of innovative new school buildings and refurbishments of existing facilities have been promoted as a policy that will enable, even bring about, modern pedagogical practices that, in turn, will achieve the stated aim of preparing students for the 21st century global economy (Ministry of Education, 2011). Arguments against retaining traditional single-cell classrooms is that these nurture traditional, mainstream (‘one-size-fits-all’) approaches to teaching and learning (Nair, 2014), while the hope is that new, radical building designs will enable ‘new’ pedagogies (even if this relationship is not fully established in research (Imms, 2016). Flexible learning environments do nevertheless encourage a break with a ‘mainstream’ paradigm, raising the question whether non-traditional learning spaces are more ‘inclusive’ than traditional classrooms. This question is addressed in the context of an on-going study of several New Zealand schools whose teachers and students have been working in flexible space since around 2012. In these schools, teachers have exchanged ‘front-of-the-room’, single teacher presentational approaches for collaborative, dispersed and facilitative styles, often in teams (Benade, 2017; Imms, 2016). Current Ministry of Education rhetoric claims the importance of building design and design processes in ensuring inclusivity (2016b), particularly cultural inclusivity. Consistent with the insights of Henri Lefebvre (1991), it is argued in this presentation, however, that notions of inclusion and exclusion are inherent in social practices that are both superimposed upon material space as much as they are influenced by that space.
Alcorn, N. (1999). ‘To the fullest extent of his powers’ C.E. Beeby’s life in education. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press. Benade, L. (2012). From technicians to teachers: Ethical teaching in the context of globalized education reform. New York, NY: Continuum. Benade, L. (2017). Being a teacher in the 21st century: A critical New Zealand research study. Singapore: Springer Nature. Imms, W. (2016). ‘New generation learning environments’: How can we find out if what works Is working?’ In W. Imms, B. Cleveland & K. Fisher (Eds.), Evaluating learning environments: Snapshots of emerging issues, methods and knowledge (pp. 21–34). Rotterdam, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Sense Publishers. Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. (D. Nicholson-Smith, trans.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Ministry of Education. (2011). The New Zealand school property strategy 2011–2021. Retrieved from http://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Primary-Secondary/Property/SchoolPropertyStrategy201121.pdf Ministry of Education. (2016a). Ambitious for New Zealand: The Ministry of Education Four Year Plan 2016-2020. Retrieved from http://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/4-Year-Plan-2016-WEB.pdf Ministry of Education. (2016b). Flexible learning spaces: Making spaces work for everyone. Factsheet. Retrieved from http://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Primary-Secondary/Property/School-property-design/Flexible-learning-spaces/FLS-Making-spaces-work-for-everyone.pdf Nair, P. (2014). Blueprint for tomorrow: Redesigning schools for student-centered learning. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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