17 SES 11, Timespacematters of Education: Re/Imagining time in schooling through places, materials and people (past_present_future) Part 1
Symposium to be continued in 17 SES 12
The concept of creativity is neither a natural nor a neutral ingredient in the ways we have come to classify a child (Martins, 2014). Even if the history of childhood creativity goes back at least to the 19th century or further still, with such figures as Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel, it is essentially in the Post-World War II period that we can witness a boom in its study (Bycroft, 2012). Childhood was considered as the place to search for the lost time of creativity. The understanding of the creative paths of the mind would open up avenues for social and economic values, answering to cultural anxieties derived from the Cold War. J.P. Guilford, who directed a research unit at the U.S. Army and Air Force, was supported with grants to study creativity through an approach on the nature of the human mind. From the study of mental operations to the measurement of creativity, Guilford and his followers insisted on the importance of bringing creative methods and nurturing creativity in the child’s development. But they were not alone in highlighting the potential of creation in the constructing of a new, better and more egalitarian society and the raising of better children for the future. The paper will focus on the study of the creative movement in the Post-World War II psychological and educational sciences, and how these “findings” travelled from the laboratory to the child’s environment. As childhood was perceived to be the place of origin of creativity, attention was given to children’s play activities, play objects, the time and the spaces of childhood (Ogata, 2013). The “design culture” (Highmore, 2014) around the creative child defined a series of objects and practices which were the materialization of the psychological concerns on childhood creativity and a way of governing the child. These ideas have governed until today the practices through which the child is taught and raised at home and in school, and choices are made relating to children’s exercises, toys, books or play activities and its time-spaces for the making up of the creative child. The naturalization of creativity as part of childhood overlooks difference, although, at the same time, creativity as a “commodity” brings the promise of exclusivity, classifying who is the creative child and who is not.
Bycroft, Michael. (2012). “Psychology, Psychologists, and the Creativity Movement: The Lives of Method Inside and Outside the Cold War.” In: Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy and Human Nature, eds. Solovey Mark and Cravens Hamilton (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), 197-214. Highmore, Ben (2014). “A Sideboard Manifesto: Design Culture in an Artificial World.” In: The Design Culture Reader, ed. Highmore Ben (London: Routledge), 13-30. Martins, Catarina S. “Disrupting the Consensus: Creativity in European Educational Discourses as a Technology of Government.” Knowledge Cultures 2, no. 3 (2014): 118-135. Ogata, Amy F. Designing the Creative Child: Playthings and Places in Midcentury America. (Minneapolis/London: University of Minnesota Press, 2013).
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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