17 SES 12, Timespacematters of Education: Re/Imagining time in schooling through places, materials and people (past_present_future) Part 2
Symposium continued from 17 SES 11
This contribution focuses on Gary, Indiana, a once-thriving centre of manufacturing that became a symbol of the decline of the steel industry in the United States [Place]. The presentation is organized into three sections that mark the journey Gary made [Time], from an industrial town [Past] to a post-industrial town [Present], and from deindustrialization to post-deindustrialization [Future]. The discussion of this journey is anchored around three central notions: the (public) school, community, and race, the latter to be considered a “continual sticking point” between the first two, with both a spatial and a socio-cultural dimension (Cohen 1990, 156). The first section discusses Gary´s heyday, from its origins in 1906 until the 1940s. During that period Gary was hailed as a New Industrial Utopia and America’s Magic City of Steel (O’Hara 2011). Gary was a lively city of mostly Eastern and Southern European working-class immigrants, and its public school system, known as the Gary Plan or work-study-play-plan or platoon system, is considered to be one of the most telling examples of progressive education in the United States (Kliebard 2004; Semel and Sadovnik 1999; Zilversmit 1993; Cohen 1990; Cremin 1961). The second section discusses a series of dramatic events taking place between 1940 and the 1960s. The influx of African Americans from the South had resulted in a segregated cityscape that by 1940 was marked by a black ghetto (Betten and Mohl 1974; see also Stoler 2008). The Gary Plan that had begun to unravel in the 1930s was dismantled in the 1940s and finally died in 1960 (Cohen 1990). The election in 1967 of the city’s first black mayor, Richard Gordon Hatcher, led to a white flight, which was the moment that Gary became a black city (O’Hara 2011). Until today Gary is plagued by joblessness, concentrated poverty, and racial isolation. The third section takes Gary’s economic and demographic decline that since the 1960s had resulted in physical decay as a starting point to revisit John Dewey’s works (particularly Dewey and Dewey, 1962/1915, in which the Gary Plan is discussed) and aims at exploring both the possibilities and limitations of what a renewed interest into the (public) school as a “social clearinghouse” could offer to urban redevelopment, particularly in Gary (Dewey and Dewey 1962/1915, 197). What is argued for is “social imagineers” instead of social engineers (Giroux 1999). This quest makes it worth to connect past, present, and future.
Betten, Neil, and Raymond A. Mohl. “The Evolution of Racism in an Industrial City, 1906–1940: A Case Study of Gary, Indiana.” The Journal of Negro History 59, no. 1 (1974): 51–64. Cohen, Ronald D. Children of the Mill: Schooling and Society in Gary, Indiana, 1906–1960 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990). Cremin, Lawrence A. The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876–1957 (New York: Vintage Books, 1961). Dewey, John, and Evelyn Dewey. Schools of Tomorrow [First published 1915.] (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1962). Giroux, Henry A. The Mouse that Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). Kliebard, Herbert M. The Struggle for the American Curriculum 1893–1958. 3rd ed. (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004). O’Hara, Paul S.. Gary: The Most American of All American Cities (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011). Semel, Susan F. and Alan R. Sadovnik, eds. “Schools of Tomorrow, Schools of Today”: What Happened to Progressive Education (New York: Peter Lang, 1999). Stoler, Ann Laura. “Imperial Debris: Reflections on Ruins and Ruination.” Cultural Anthropology 23, no. 2 (2008): 191–219. Zilversmit, Arthur. Changing Schools: Progressive Education Theory and Practice, 1930-1960 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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