08 SES 01, School wellbeing
Well-being is a concept that is increasingly used in many fields. The WHO also makes it a condition of health: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not just an absence of disease or infirmity. In 2011, the OECD launched a well-being indicator to better understand the living conditions of the inhabitants of its member countries (OECD, 2011) and enable citizens to compare their well-being in 34 countries. based on 11 dimensions. Among these, education figures prominently.
Florin (2011) also points out the need to develop pupils' cognitive, expressive and social skills, but also to promote their well-being and recognizes this as a fundamental issue for the actors of the educational world. At the European level, the Commission of the European Communities (2007) recalls that the objectives that education must set itself in society is not only to develop skills in individuals but also to aim at the personal growth of individuals. Although the primary purpose of the school was the transmission of knowledge, the notion of well-being had already been given impetus as a result of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
Finally, the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, which analyzes multiple dimensions of health among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 41 countries, points out that low scores on well-being among these children will have a direct impact on their health. This survey makes well-being a public health issue that countries are urged to seize quickly (HBSC, 2016).
Still in the school setting, Randolph, Kangas & Ruoka (2009) recall that students who are satisfied with their life at school develop their personal resources better, show greater ability to adapt and, above all, become more easily engaged. in learning. It also seems that motivation is a source of well-being (Nie, Chua, Yeung, Ryan, Chan, 2014). However, Howard, Gagné, Morin and Van den Broeck (2016), even though they recognize that well-being must be linked to several motivational concepts, relativize the causality that may exist.
Faced with this lack of consensus, it seems necessary to better understand the links between motivation and well-being. To do this we will rely on several motivational concepts that, hypothetically, should have links to well-being: self-efficacy (SE), interest and achievement goals.
Research litterature allows us to postulate that motivation acts on well-being in a complex way. Indeed, it appears that the SE explains achievement goals but it’s not reciprocal (Eliott and Church, 1997). Academic interest would be determined by the type of goal pursued by the student (Schiefele and Schaffner, 2015) as well as by his SE (Ross, Perkins & Bodey, 2016, Bandura and Schunk, 1981). Interest would be linked to well-being (Fenouillet, Heutte, Krumm and Boniwell, 2014). We also believe that the effect of SE on school well-being would be fully mediated by goals and academic interest (Laguardia and Ryan, 2000). Moreover the various researches make it possible to postulate that it is the school interest which will have the most weight on the well-being and that the effect of the learning goal on the well-being will be mediated partially or totally by the interest (Kaplan and Maehr, 1999). Finally we do not expect a significant effect of the performance goal on well-being or even on interest (Tuominen-Soini, 2012).
Our sample is made up of 278 pupils from 7th and 8th classes from 9 schools. Half of the establishments are urban and the other half are located in rural areas in cities of less than 10,000 inhabitants. This is a sample of 48.8% girls and 51.2% girls. The average age of students is 10.59 years (SD = 0.53, min = 9, max = 12). We used 4 different scale to assess motivation and well-being : Scale of academic interest, of 5 items (Fenouillet, F., Chainon, D., Yennek, N., Masson, J., & Heutte, J. (2017)). We used items that measure academic interest (α = .83). Scale of self-efficacy, of 11 items (Masson & Fenouillet, 2013). We used the items that measure the school SE on 3 items (α = .83). Scale of achivement goals (Masson & Fenouillet, 2017). We used the 6 items of the two dimensions related to performance approach goal (3 items, α = .82) and learning approach goal (3 items, α = .77). Scale of school well-being . We used the dimension of school well-being (7 items, α = .85) which is one of the dimensions of the student's multidimensional life satisfaction scale (Fenouillet, Heutte, Martin-Krumm, Boniwwel, 2015). The procedure was as follow : The institutions were contacted at the beginning of the 2016 school year to obtain their agreement to carry out research with their pupils. After agreement of the teachers and the parents, the experimenter distributed the questionnaires to each class. The handover took place with the teachers of each class. They took place at one time per student between November 2016 and January 2017.
The purpose of this research was to better understand the determinants of school well-being. Among these, we postulated that a certain number of motivational theories (SE, achievement goals and interest) had links with it. The study of correlations allowed us to confirm this general hypothesis since indeed the different variables measured have many links between them and this according to the theory. At first, if we look at SE, it indeed impacts the goals in a different way. If it is acting positively on the learning approach goal, it seems that there is no connection to the performance approach goals. In this quest for well-being, SE does not seem to have an impact on the adoption of performance goal. This result provides a better understanding of the complex relationship between SE and goal. More over, learning approach goals are a mediator between SE and interest. Indeed, the SE does not act directly on the interest (β = .06, ns) but when the pupil is oriented towards the learning approach, it influences the interest that he can feel. A student who moves towards a task with the objective of learning something new, will feel more interest in it than if he is moving towards competition. This result obviously has a direct impact for teachers, since orienting students towards the competition (ranking ...) will tend to destroy the interest they may feel for school activities. Moreover, interest is an important mediator of achievement goals on well-being. If the learning approach goal has a positive impact on well-being and the performance approach goal has a negative impact, this remains in fairly low proportions (β = .17 * for learning goal and β = -. 12 * for performance goal). Finally, the greatest influence on well-being is made by the interest (β=.62 ***)
Bandura, A. (1997) Self-efﬁcacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Fenouillet, F., Heutte, J., Martin-Krumm, C., & Boniwell, I. (2014) « Validation française de l’échelle multidimensionnelle Satisfaction de vie chez l’élève (Multidimensional. Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale) » - Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement. Advance online publication. Florin, A. (2011) « Des apprentissages fondamentaux aux compétences de demain : les apports de la psychologie de l’éducation » - Bulletin de psychologie, vol. 64, n° 511, p. 15-29. Howard, J., Gagné, M., Morin, A.J.S., & Van den Broeck, A. (2016) « Motivation profiles at work: A self-determination theory approach » - Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95–96, p. 74–89. Laguardia, J.G. & Ryan, R.M. (2000) «Buts personnels, besoins psychologiques fondamentaux et bien-être : théorie de l’autodétermination et applications » - Revue québécoise de psychologie. Vol. 21, n°2. Masson, J. & Fenouillet, F. (2013) « Relation entre sentiment d’efficacité personnelle et résultats scolaires à l’école primaire : Construction et validation d’une échelle » - Enfance n°4. OECD (2016) Your Better Life Index : Country Notes. Résultats PISA 2015 (Volume III) : Le bien-être des élèves. Paris : Editions OCDE. Ross, M., Perkins, H., & Bodey, K. (2016) «Academic motivation and information literacy self- efficacy: The importance of a simple desire to know» - Library & Information Science Research, 38(1), p. 2–9. HBSC (2016) « Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people's health and well-being ». Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2013/2014 survey. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 7. Inchley J et al. eds. Tuominen-Soini, H. (2012) « Student motivation and well-being : Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles, Temporal Stability, and Academic and Socio-Emotional Outcomes ». Thèse de doctorat, University of Helsinki, Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Educational Sciences, 245. Ross, M., Perkins, H., & Bodey, K. (2016) « Academic motivation and information literacy self-efficacy: The importance of a simple desire to know » - Library & Information Science Research, 38(1), p.2–9. Randolph J., Kangas M.M. & Ruokamo H. (2009) « The Preliminary Development of the children’s Overall Satisfaction with Schooling Scale (COSSS) » - Child Indicators Resarch, vol. 2, n° 1, p. 79-93.
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