07 SES 02 C, Transnational Families
At a local and global level, the complexity of the current social, liquid and plurals contexts, often leads to the risk of considering otherness and difference as a constant threat to the identity and the social and cultural stability of individuals and communities. The human and ethical challenge that however today is required to "learn to live together" is to educate and to educate ourselves to consider the differences as the mutually traverable frontiers allows to recognize what, in spite of everything, unites and makes similar.
Specifically, reflecting on the dialectic between risk/challenge, inherent in the urgent issues induced by migration and related to the processes of inclusion, integration and social cohesion (within the contexts of arrival), urges to shift the center of attention from the individual subject to the "family subject", although considered the latter through the lens of plurality.
In their being "between" two cultures, migrant families are in fact a "crucial junctin point"of the relationship between safeguarding cultural differences and initiating constructive integration processes in and with the local context.
With particular reference to the domestic and private context, the recent studies carried out in Italy on the "second generations" also note the important role of mediation exercised by parents in the process of identity construction of the children and they detect as the "educational styles" of parents can represent a "ballast and/or an opportunity" for the integration of the entire household.
Starting from these considerations, the contribution intends to present a research, begun in 2016 and still underway. It pursues he qualitative-quantitative approach and aimes at exploring the concept of intercultural mediation, observing it from the point of view of the experience of "second generation" parents: immigrant parents with teenage children, who have been resident for at least eight to ten years and with a good level of integration in the territory (identified on the basis of the quality of relations with the school and/or other Services/institutions/socio-educational associations present in the territory).
The aim pursued is to know what is the educational style prevailing among parents "G2" residing for some years in Italy and, in particular, if ‒ and how much ‒ are disseminated educational modalities both of intercultural mediation (in the relationship with their teenage children) and of intercultural integration and interreligiosity (in the interaction with and in the territory).
In this respect, the research tool (questionnaire) will be presented. It was built from the main thematic nodes emerged from the qualitative research and, after having been appropriately calibrated, it’s currently employed in the national survey. The hope is that we can extend the administration of the questionnaire to other countries concerned, thus creating a European network of partnerships and research.
The epistemological horizon from which the project intends to look at the parents "G2" is that dialogic, phenomenological-hermeneutic, constructivist, which, albeit from different angles, recognizes in the relationship the existential dimension, ontological, axiological of the subject-person.
From the pedagogical point of view, the lens through which it intends to look at the educational styles of parents "G2" is the concept of intercultural mediation, considered as "one of the structural dimensions of educational action in plurals contexts". In particular, referring to contributions deriving both from cultural anthropology and from ethical-philosophical-political and sociological thought, the contribution intends to pay particular attention to the implications that, from the point of view of the parents "G2", the principles of educability, inclusion, cohesion and social creativity, membership and citizenship, religiosity and interreligiosity, assume within the educational relationship with children and ‒ outside ‒ in social relations in the territory.
The research takes a qualitative-quantitative approach. The qualitative phase of the research was carried out in the territory of Padua and has recourse to the narrative method (2016-2017), to the ethnographic method and to the action research method (2017-2018). It was divided into 2 main actions: 1. The conduct of two cycles of narrative interviews focused with a reasoned sample of parental couples, differently distributed in the territory of Padua and heterogeneous both by geographical origin and by religion, resident for at least 8-10 years in Italy and which have a good level of integration in the city (noted on the basis of the quality of relations with the school and/or with the other services/socio-educational institutions of the city); 2. The creation of a "mixed" action research pilot group, composed of some voluntary socio-educational operators (involved in the local parishes, in the services offered by the local Caritas and Migrantes) and of some "second generation" parents. The objective reached by the group was to identify possible actions to promote, enhance and / or strengthen competences of educational mediation in the resident parents (migrants and not) in the territory through which is possible to act as effective "intercultural witnesses" in the relationship with their teenage children. One of these actions was the realization of a parents ' training laboratory (both Italian and not) entitled: "To be father and mother of teenage children: what relation to educate?" On the basis of the main thematic nodes emerged in the qualitative phase and inherent in the educational, social, religious and interreligious behavior of the parents "G2" interviewed, a questionnaire was elaborated. The quantitative phase of research (currently in progress) provides for the administration of the questionnaire to a representative sample of parents "G2", heterogeneous both by geographical origin and by religion, residents in Italy by at least 8-10 years and which prove to have a good level of integration in the city (noted on the basis of the quality of the relations with the school and/or with the other services/socio-educational institutions of the city). It is also envisaged to be able to create at the local level some action research groups able to identify actions useful to support and to orient towards an intercultural integration also those migrant families who cross various forms of social and cultural discomfort.
The data collected in the qualitative phase of the research showed how being parents of teenage children in multicultural contexts is an experience that unites native and non-native parents, despite their mutual differences. In fact, the common difficulties that these parents encounter in the educational relationship with their teenage children allows them to discover some common educational principles which they consider important to teach their children to become adults "with roots and with wings", capable of being citizens with others in the city. From the quantitative phase of the research (in progress) the intent is to obtain data useful to know: - If and how much an intercultural educational style is diffused on the Italian territory; - What is the educational behaviour of non-native parents regarding the principles of inclusion and social cohesion, religiosity and interreligiosity. Is it also possible to extend the collection of data at European level with the participation of other countries interested in research?
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