03 SES 12 A, Evaluation of Curriculum Integration
Since the inception of Nazarbayev Intellectual School of physics and mathematics in Taraz (NIS PhM, Taraz), content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has been applied under a trilingual paradigm (NIS, 2012). Content is taught is Kazakh, Russian and English. This study aims at locating the assessment tools for CLIL, selecting and applying a comprehensive assessment, analyzing the data and making recommendations for amendments at the study site for lessons taught in English at Grade 12.
The practice of CLIL and the assessment of CLIL practice have not been fully integrated within the field of education so much so that while many teachers refer to CLIL, there is no visible CLIL assessment, monitoring and evaluation. CLIL is practiced either partially or in totality which masks how effective particular strategies are. There is no proper documentation within Kazakhstan about what exactly is working or failing concerning CLIL. Furthermore, the body of knowledge about CLIL assessment methodology is at best scattered and the tools of assessment are hidden from easy access. The tools available are elitist and assume the availability of internet technology; the presence of skills to utilize them and the sophistication to interpret the data collected. If this situation is left unattended, then CLIL will continue to be carried out in a hit or miss manner. Fortunately the tools for assessment of CLIL in CLIL schools exist that can right the prevalent wishy-washy practices extant in the study context.
Three questions were answered in this study. First of all, ‘What comprehensive, theory-based assessment tools exist for measuring CLIL results?’. The first question is important in order to identify how CLIL is measured elsewhere and how it is done. Secondly, ‘What is the current state of CLIL practice in Grade 12 at Nazarbayev Intellectual School of physics and mathematics in Taraz?’. The second question is intended to provide a snapshot of the incumbent state of affairs concerning CLIL at the study site. Finally, ‘What improvements can be made in CLIL practice in Grade 12? The third question is pertinent to address the need for concrete remedial steps to fix the weaknesses and mitigate any threats in CLIL practice at the study site.
CLIL is a teaching and learning methodology (Maljers, Marsh, Kitanova, Wolff, Zielonka, 2005). It is primarily used for teaching language skills while riding on the opportunity of teaching domain-specific content. It is about intellectual learning from learning theory and language learning theory applied together. It is mainly used in settings where the acquisition of another language is a major goal so that several strategies including teaching content while teaching a subject are co-deployed (NIS, 2016). A school that applies the CLIL methodology is referred to as a CLIL school (Maljers et al., 2005). The central thrust of CLIL is to capture opportunities to apply the language skills of reading, listening, speaking, writing as well as domain content and the use of the target language. These six aspects of any language are applied during the process of any lesson in order to deliver the subject content and simultaneously teach the target language (Avasi & Sarsenbayeva, 2017).
Based on the review of literature, the online evaluation tool of Maljers et al., (2005) was adopted. This assessment tool provides a detailed scope as it uses CLIL-4C intersecting cells. Design A qualitative study design was adopted for this evaluation. This design is helpful when numbers are not an overriding consideration. Instead, emphasis is placed on the words and descriptions related to the study variables. In this case, the state of CLIL practices is presented using verbal descriptions of the data that is returned by the comprehensive online CLIL program evaluation tool. Sample One program of CLIL applied in a single Grade 12 cohort was evaluated on 16 indicators developed from pairing content, language, integration and learning with content, communication, cognition and culture. Data collection A one-shot, self-administered survey was completed by a single teacher. In this paper, pairs of the CLIL indicators form the themes under which reflections that are relevant to them are given. Along with the CLIL matrix, Maljers et al., (2005) set a total of 80 questions to test each of the CLIL matrix indicators. The questions are found at archive.ecml.at and are automatically checked online. They are scored using bi-directional Likert scales such as ‘Very high-Inadequate’. A tank graphic is used to indicate how well a school or class is faring on any indicator. This is powerful. However, the questions are somewhat masked and getting to them is not a straightforward process. Completing the 80 questions involves reading the indicator definition, reading an example and quote and then completing a variable number of items (4-10) per indicator. The time overhead can be up to one hour. These factors may explain why no studies hitherto appeared to apply the CLIL matrix assessment strategy and report about it. Furthermore, the questions exist in English and French only so translation into Kazakh and Russian could potentially increase its use in this context. Nonetheless, this tool suffices for the purposes of evaluating CLIL as applied in Grade 12.
Overall, there is still room for improvement especially in the Community rank and the Integration file. It is evident some aspects of CLIL can best succeed if the school leadership full throws their weight behind CLIL initiatives to allow them to thrive and grow. This can be done through creation of environments and rules that affirmatively encourage the development of language 3; increasing the involvement of stakeholders in the teaching and learning of physics in the school; increasing the frequency of exchange programs and student visits abroad and exposing more classes to proficient English language users. Further work in vocabulary development is needed to reduce the reliance of students and some teachers on translation technologies such as Google Translate during lessons. Assessments need to progress to examining students on high order thinking skills as a way of setting a high academic language bar for them to jump. Opportunities to engage scientifically with the locale ought to be sought, sponsored and documented. The desired competence in the English language is best driven by internal motivation but this area is personal to the teachers and learners and exploration of CLIL in this dimension is just taking off. As long as the key indicators of the CLIL matrix are kept in view, steady progress will continue to be made in physics at this CLIL school.
1.Arribas, M. (2016). Analysing a whole CLIL school: Students' attitudes, motivation, and receptive vocabulary outcomes. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 9(2), 267. 2.Avasi, V., & Sarsenbayeva, N. (2017). Reading As a Managed Program in Lower Secondary School. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(12). 3.Dale, L., Van der Es, W., Tanner, R., & Timmers, S. (2010). CLIL skills. ICLON, Universiteit Leiden. 4.Jussambayev, M., (2018). Developing integrated Physics lessons in English language as L3 for secondary students of Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) in Kazakhstan. ECER 2018 – the European Conference on Educational Research. 5.Marsh, D., Coyle, D., Kitanova, S., Maljers, A., Wolff, D., & Zielonka, B. (2005). Project D3–CLIL Matrix. The CLIL quality matrix. In Central Workshop Report 6/2005. 6.Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS). (2012). In-service Training Programme for teachers of the Comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Beginner Level (2nd ed.). Astana, AO: Centre for Pedagogic Measurements. 7.Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS). (2016). Integrated Programme of Development a.Physics Grade 12, Course Plan. Astana, AO: Centre for Pedagogic Measurements. 8.Scarino, A., Liddicoat, A., & Kohler, M. (2016). Maximising intensivity and continuity in language learning: developing, implementing and evaluating models of provision. 9.Small, K.G., (2014). Vocabulary Dominoes for Physics. A topical compilation. Nazarbayev Intellectual School of Physics and Mathematics. NIS PhM, Taraz, Kazakhstan. 10.University of Cambridge (UoC). (2014). SYLLABUS Cambridge International AS and A Level Physics, 9702. For examination in June and November 2016, 2017 and 2018. Course Plan, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education. 11.University of Cambridge (UoC). (2017). Integrated Programme of Development Physics Grade 12 Course Plan, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education. 12.http://archive.ecml.at/mtp2/CLILmatrix/EN/qMain.html
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