06 SES 07 A, Space, Community & Distance
The university as a learning space has only recently been taken into consideration in educational discourse (DINI 2013). Considerations of spatial design in settings of university didactics play a rather subordinate role here, although students' self-organised and reflective learning is expected during their studies and appropriate preparation of the space can support this (Woolner 2010, 79 ff.; Stadler-Altmann 2015, 260 ff. & 2016). Typically, the library and - if available - learning workshop seem to be the places of a university where students' learning becomes visible. The special topography of these two rooms can be shown analytically based on the typology of Blömer (2011) on two reflection levels, application-oriented structural and basic theoretical.
In relation to our question of how two places can become a learning space, the individual appropriation and the social constitution of space (Simmel 1903) are important in order to understand how a place can become a space, especially a learning space for students.
From the first, the basic theoretical perspective of the levels of reflection, the learning space that emerges from the cooperation and joint design of the learning workshop and library is located in the educational discourse. Space is not an easily identifiable category by which the quality of the educational institution university is measured. In general, the quality of educational institutions is described on the basis of Ditton (2000), the prerequisites, the primary characteristics and processes as well as the results. In transferring this to the university context, the conditions and intentions of the individual university, the institutional and interaction level as well as the short and medium-term results should be taken into account when determining university quality. According to this system, the physical space of a university is a "means of production" (Riecke-Baulecke 2001, 118) or a "working condition" (ibid.) that is dependent on the financial, material and human resources of the institution and thus influences the level of interaction of university teaching and learning.
Other models, e.g. the model of Holtappels (2007), place concrete space and its use in the context of organisational culture, whereby here too the functionality and instrumentalisation of space for one purpose - teaching and learning - are central. This turns a physical place into a learning environment or pedagogical space. If the description of the classroom as a pedagogical space is transferred from Kemnitz (2001, 48) to the educational institution university, the rooms in the university can also be defined as pedagogical spaces with a pedagogical function, a pedagogical intention and a pedagogical effect. In the university context, however, it is learning, educational and socialization processes of adults rather than educational processes that are at the forefront of pedagogical efforts.
The practice of concrete actions in space is a third level of reflection which, in addition to a basic theoretical and a structural description of a space, makes visible the function, intention and effect of a space, since "spaces [...] can suggest certain activities or are also fixed to limited activities" (Becker, Bilstein & Liebau 1997, 12). This determination of a space's action is obvious in a university in which general types of space. These university types of space make it clear that "space [...] has an effect on people, and people act on space, on other people, but also on objects" (Noack 1996, 13). Only through actions on a psychological and physical level (cf. Aebli 2006, 181 ff.) does a space become a place, according to de Certeau (1988). Through this linguistic distinction between place and space, he describes a differentiation that distinguishes between the physical place and a space charged with meaning through action.
Library and learning workshop are two places of a university which require independent action of the learners. In a library, the mastery of certain cultural techniques is expected, ranging from reading and writing and research to techniques of literature administration and exploitation. In a learning workshop, self-organised and independent learning is required. In this respect, these two university locations differ from lecture theatres and seminar rooms because the library location and the learning workshop location must become (action) spaces even without the presence and guidance of lecturers. This constitution is supported in the library and in the learning workshop by the available objects. Both places invite actions on a physical and psychological level: the library through its media stock and the learning workshop through its didactic stock. The historically evolved spatial concept of the library and the learning workshop do indeed have similarities, but nevertheless differ in some points and demand different actions from their users. In both places studying in the true sense of the word is assumed to be an academic activity and to be somewhat eager (cf. Duden, o.S.). However, in a library it is expected that students procure their learning media independently, deal with the contents independently, reading and writing in the physical and virtual library location and thus create an individual learning space centred on their own learning. In a learning workshop, it is also expected that students acquire their learning media, books and didactic materials independently and deal with them independently, action-oriented, individually or in a group at the place of learning. Students create a learning space that is on the one hand centred on their own learning, on the other hand takes place in social contexts and thus also becomes a learning space that requires communicative exchange and can thus be identified acoustically. Basically, the learning space library and learning workshop differ in their expected noise level, because in the library more the individual mostly silent learning is to be found and in the learning workshop both the individual and the common learning in a group.
A relocation, a new design and the integration of a place into a new environment do not turn a learning workshop into a learning space. The opening of a historically grown place for a new arrangement does not turn a library into a learning room. Two as different places as a learning workshop and a library do not yet become a common learning space just because they are in a common building. According to de Certeau, it is only through the action practices of the subjects that a place becomes a space. The interaction of the subjects with and without objects at a certain place transforms this place into a space in which the dimension of time also plays a decisive role. This interdependence can be explored by looking at the subjects. The subject with its time and in the time in which it acts initiates and influences this transformation process. Only through an acting subject does a place become a space. Actions are thereby individual and/or social processes of action in psychological and physical dimensions based on the definition of action for didactic processes according to Aebli (2006, 195 ff.), which can be described as processes starting from a concrete vividness to more abstract (thought) actions.
Aebli, Hans (2006). Zwölf Grundformen des Lehrens. Eine allgemeine Didaktik auf psychologischer Grundlage. Medien und Inhalte didaktischer Kommunikation, der Lernzyklus. 13. Aufl. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. Becker, Gerold; Bilstein, Johannes; Liebau, Eckart (1997) (Hrsg.). Räume bilden. Studien zur pädagogischen Topologie und Topographie. Seelze-Velber: Kallmeyer. Böhme, Jeanette; Herrmann, Ina (2011). Schule als pädagogischer Machtraum. Typologie schulischer Raumentwürfe. Wiesbaden: Springer. Blömer, Daniel (2011), Topographie der Gesamtschule. Zum Zusammenhang von Pädagogik und Raum, Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Certeau, Michel de (1988), Praktiken im Raum, in: ders., Kunst des Handelns, aus dem Französischen von Ronald Voullie, Berlin: Merve-Verlag, 179-238. Coelen, Hendrik; Müller-Naendrup, Barbara (2013) (Hrsg.), Studieren in Lernwerkstätten. Potentiale und Herausforderungen für die Lehrerbildung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. DINI (Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation e.V.) (2013) (Hrsg.), Die Hochschule zum Lernraum entwickeln. Empfehlungen der DINI – AG Lernräume, Kassel: university press. Holtappels, Heinz Günther (2007). Qualität von Schule. In: Pädagogische Rundschau, 61 (5): 507-525. Kemnitz, Heidemarie (2001). Pädagogische Architektur? Zur Gestaltung des pädagogischen Raums, in: Die deutsche Schule, 93 (1): 46-57. Noack, Marleen (1996). Der Schulraum als Pädagogikum. Zur Relevanz des Lernorts für das Lernen. Weinheim: Dt. Studien-Verlag. Riecke-Baulecke, Thomas (2001). Effizienz von Lehrerarbeit und Schulqualität. Zielklarheit, Transparenz und Prozessoptimierung – Eckpfeiler zukunftsorientierter Schulentwicklung. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Rumpf, Dietlinde; Schöps, Miriam (2013), Hochschullernwerkstätten als Raum für Kooperationen. In: Coelen, Hendrik; Müller-Naendrup, Barbara (2013) (Hrsg.), Studieren in Lernwerkstätten. Potentiale und Herausforderungen für die Lehrerbildung (31-39). Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 31-39. Schude, Sabrina (2013), Studienwerkstätten als bedeutsame Lernumgebungen in Hochschule und Schule. In: Coelen, Hendrik; Müller-Naendrup, Barbara (2013) (Hrsg.), Studieren in Lernwerkstätten. Potentiale und Herausforderungen für die Lehrerbildung (9-26). Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 9-26. Simmel, Georg (1903), Soziologie des Raumes. In: Schmoller, Gustav (Hrsg.). Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im Deutschen Reich. Neue Folge 27 (I): 27-71. Stadler-Altmann, Ulrike (2018), EduSpaces – Räume für kooperativen Theorie-Praxis-Transfer. Pädagogische Werkstattarbeit als Ansatz pädagogischer Professionalisierung, in: Peschel, Markus; Kelkel, Mareike (Hrsg.), Fachlichkeit in Lernwerkstätten. Kind und Sache in Lernwerkstätten, Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, 227-245. Stadler-Altmann, Ulrike (2015), The Influence of School and Classroom Space on Education, in: Christine Rubie-Davies, Jason M. Stephens, & Patt Watson (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Social Psychology of the Classroom, London: Routledge, p. 252-262. Winkler, Gerda; Stadler-Altmann, Ulrike (2016), EduSpace Lernwerkstatt in the Library – a collaboration project between the Faculty of Education and the Library, IATUL: Bolzano.
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