06 SES 00 PS, General Poster Exhibition - NW 06
Posters can be viewed in the General Poster Exhibition throughout the ECER week.
This paper intends to explore Open Educational Practices' possibilities of using Wikipedia for Media Education as a subject matter. Since the foundation 20 years ago, there has been growing research and practical interest in using Wikipedia for educational purposes. In a research review of the first ten years of Wikipedia, Fessakis and Zoumpatianou (2012) already identified various student-centred activities following the social constructivist approach. To improve the educational practice, the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF) created the Wikipedia Education Program (WEP) in 2010. The motto is: "We believe that Wikipedia belongs in education!" (Source). The program helps instructors in creating Wikipedia assignments for their classroom by providing tutorials, resources and tools. According to WikiEdu Dashboard, the program supported 3,600 Wiki Education Courses and reached 73,500 Students since 2010 ((WikiEduDashbaord 2021).
In addition to spreading the educational use of Wikipedia over the last decade, research has made significant progress in two areas. One research area involves studies on Wikipedia as a learning resource, and it's perceived value by students and teachers (e. g. Khany and Khosravian 2014, Meseguer-Artola et al. 2016, Obregón-Sierra and González-Fernández 2020). Opportunities and limitations for facilitating collaboration and supporting the collective construction of knowledge through Wikipedia belonging the second research focus (e.g. Maggio et al. 2020, Kantarovich et al. 2020, Petrucco 2018). According to a literature review of Petrucco (2018, 11-12) the most important benefits of assigning students to write Wikipedia articles collaboratively are: (1.) "Developing digital competences", (2.) "Increasing intrinsic motivation", (3.) "New forms of formative assessment", (4.) "Participating in an online community outside the university" and (5.) "Social benefits and the university's 'third mission'". Primarily the last two benefits are referring to practices beyond using open educational resources (OER) for learning. Bali et al. (2020, 2) have noted "collaborative knowledge creation such as in Wikipedia" can be described as content and process-focused open educational practices (OEP).
The mentioned benefits of open educational practices seem suited to work on the central challenges of Wikipedia. One key issue of Wikipedia is "low level of accuracy and completeness of some articles, especially those dealing with domains of specialised knowledge" (Petrucco 2018). A second central challenge of Wikipedia is the lack of diversity of its authors. According to WikiEdu, almost 90% of Wikipedia's content is written by men, and only 20% of volunteer Wikipedia editors are women (WikiEdu 2020). Moreover, there is a content gender gap (Salvaggio 2016). WikiEdu is trying to work on these challenges with the various campaigns. For example, 68% of Wiki Education's student editors are women and with one campaign they "are focused on developing biographies of women scientists to help balance the gender content gap" (WikiEdu 2020).
However, the topic of media education has hardly been taken into account. Out of over 3600 courses from the WikiEdu dashboard, only 43 courses include the term "Education" in the course title. There are no matches found for "Media Education" in the WikiEdu dashboard at all (WikiEduDashbaord 2021). So far little attention has been paid to media education as subject matter in the context of the Wikipedia Education Programm and in research about Wikipedia. Therefore the paper addresses the following questions:
- Are topics, terms and biographies of media education represented in Wikipedia? How can the quality of these articles be assessed?
- Who writes articles about media education in Wikipedia and how many people participate?
The collection of relevant data for existing articles is currently carried out for the German-language Wikipedia. The selection of search terms and topics is based on current handbooks on the subject area of media education (Sander et al. 2020, Schorb et al. 2017, von Gross et al. 2015). The English Wikipedia will be analyzed in the second step. The analysis for other languages is planned for the following stages of the project. The "XTools" application (xTools 2020) is used to collect relevant data about Wikipedia articles. It is a suite of statistics tools for MediaWiki wikis like Wikipedia. The Wikimedia installation is available at xtools.wmflabs.org. The "Page History" tool is used to collect relevant data about individual articles. According to documentation the tool provides detailed statistics about the revision history of a page including "General Statistics", "Top editors (by the number of edits and by added text), "Top editors table", "Bot list", "Year counts", "Month counts". Identified editors will be described using their profile on Wikipedia. Data were gathered for the period from 01.01.2001 until 01.01.2021.
The project's goal is to create an overview of previous media education articles in Wikipedia to identify existing gaps and the need for revision systematically. The results should provide an overview of possible Open Educational Practices using Wikipedia for media education as a subject matter. The initial results reveal many articles on media education terms and topics in the German-language Wikipedia. However, the quality and scope of the articles vary greatly. Among other things, this is reflected in the professional quality of the sources used. Besides, the phenomenon of a gender content gap in scientists and practitioners' biographies for the field of media education is also evident. Out of 49 people in the "media educator" category, only 11 are women. Of 12 people in the "media didactician" category, only 2 are women. These gaps and quality differences provide multiple opportunities for open educational practices with students.
Bali, M, et al. 2020. Framing Open Educational Practices from a Social Justice Perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1):10, pp. 1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/jime.565 Fessakis, G. and Zoumpatianou, M. (2012): Wikipedia uses in learning design: A literature review. In: Themes in Science & Technology Education, 5(1/2), 97-106, 2012 Kantarovich, D.,Vollbrecht H. B., Cruz, S. A., Castillo, H., Lee, C. S., Kushner J., Leng, J. X., Morgan, V. K. and Hellman. K. M. (2020). ‘Wikipedia: A Medical Student Educational Project to Edit Wikipedia in Preparation for Practicing Evidence-Based Pain Medicine’. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development 7 (December): 2382120520959691. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520959691. Khany, R., and Khosravian F. (2014) ‘Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Development through Wikipedia’. English Language Teaching 7 (7): p57. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n7p57. Maggio, L. A., Willinsky, J. M., Costello J. A.,Skinner N. A., Martin, P. C. , and Dawson, J. E. (2020) ‘Integrating Wikipedia Editing into Health Professions Education: ACurricular Inventory and Review of the Literature’. Perspectives on Medical Education 9 (6): 333–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-020-00620-1. Obregón-Sierra, Á, and González-Fernández, N. 2020. ‘Wikipedia en las facultades de educación españolas. La visión de los estudiantes universitarios’. Alteridad 15 (2): 218–28. https://doi.org/10.17163/alt.v15n2.2020.06. Petrucco, C. (2018): Wikipedia in university courses: teaching practices and educational benefits Research on Education and Media. Vol. 10, N. 2, Year 2018 – DOI: 10.1515/rem-2018-0010 Salvaggio, E. (2016) "Why Wikipedia matters for women in science". Online available at: https://wikiedu.org/blog/2016/03/08/wikipedia-women-in-science/ Sander, U.; von Gross, F. and Hugger, K.-U. (2020): Handbuch Medienpädagogik, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien. Schorb, B.; Hartung-Griemberg, A. and Dallmann. C (2017) Grundbegriffe Medienpädagogik,6., neu verfasste Auflage. München: Kopaed. v. Gross, F., Meister, D. M. and Sander, U. (2015): Medienpädagogik - Ein Überblick. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Juventa. WikiEdu (2020) "Communicating Science" Campaign. Online available at: https://wikiedu.org/communicating-science/ WikiEduDashboard (2021) "Dashboard". Online available at: https://dashboard.wikiedu.org XTools (2020). Documentation. Online available at: https://xtools.readthedocs.io/en/stable/
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