23 SES 10 E, Principals and Salaries
Parallel Paper Session
The purpose of our research is to present the results of comparative analysis for academic remuneration and contracts across the world. An analysis is based on the results of a project which is a joint effort of Higher School of Economics, Russia; Center for International Education (Boston College, USA) and 28 country experts (project details are available at http://acarem.hse.ru).
University faculty and researchers typically operate with different incentives, interests, and remuneration than participants in other sectors of the workforce. In this respect, the academic labour market and academic contracts represent a subsector of the broader traditional labor market; they are more homogenous and subject to more uniform rules. At the same time when examined more internationally, it becomes apparent that wage and contract-related practices in the academic world are quite varied, as are policies and opportunities for earning additional income outside university. Such practices have been described in detail in each of the chapters in this book. It is clear that the academic profession today is not only affected by the salary, contract, and remuneration schemes that operate in each country but increasingly by international trends in an increasingly globalized academic world.
After reviewing these differences, one begins to look for what different national practices have in common? Are there typical models? What features do they share? The analysis in this chapter reflects a review of common elements and differences we have observed in the data collected by our 28 country experts (see list of countries at: http://acarem.hse.ru/about). In this presentation we summarize and compare several characteristics of the academic sector. Next, we turn to data about faculty, show the percentage, that they constitute in total labor force, their workload in terms of student per full-time faculty and distribution of faculty by academic rank. Third, we analyze faculty salaries in international PPP US dollars, in relation to GDP per capita and the differentiation by academic rank. Finally, we summarize a survey of our experts on the use of fringe benefits across different countries in order to weigh the importance of different components of remuneration packages beyond basic salary.
One of the central questions of our analysis was whether academic profession is attractive enough to attract and retain talent in different countries. It’s broader than whether academic and non-academic salaries are comparable. Indeed, as our study shows that academic earnings often include supplemental compensation for extra activities (e.g., teaching overload, research, consultancy, industry collaborations), as well as non-pecuniary benefits (long vacation, prestige, social benefits, etc.). In some countries, salary alone will not even provide a middle class income (allowing for the fact that middle class is defined differently in each country). In some countries (Mexico and Ethiopia are examples) the basic salary may not support an individual let alone a family but provides a professional and social status that can be leveraged to earn additional income by teaching in multiple institutions or through a non-academic professional activity.
1. Paying the Professoriate. A Global Comparison of Compensation and Contracts (Edited by Philip Altbach, Liz Reisberg, Maria Yudkevich, Gregory Androushchak, Iván Pacheco), Routledge, 2012. 2. Project data are available at: http://acarem.hse.ru
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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