23 SES 07 D, Civil Competence and Partnership
Parallel Paper Session
The achievement of the EU project has given the school an outstanding role in promoting a democratic and European citizenship. In 1997 the European Commission report on education and training emphasized precisely the idea that citizenship was "building a greater Europe characterized by cultural differences, different economic concepts, different natural realities, but united by a sense of belonging to a common civilization"(European Commission, 1997). Education for citizenship has been the most visible face of this purpose, having been the reason for the implementation of educational reforms in Europe (Menezes, 2003) and the subject of several international studies at the level of knowledge, skills, attitudes and political involvement of young people (Torney-Purta et al, 2001).
However, in line with the European demand, the literature has called attention that education for citizenship should not focus exclusively on information about citizenship, but also be concerned with the development of competences more directly involved in the action and with the provision of concrete opportunities to act (Menezes, et al, 1999).
It is assumed, therefore, an understanding of citizenship that is based on the relationship with the whole society (Roldão, 1999). However, it is important to be aware of the risks of "hyper-schooling" of the social (Correia, 2001), to the extent that civil society is potentially a formative space for the exercise of active citizenship.
In this context of analysis, various social institutions, not only the school, have an important role in preparing young people for citizenship, that probably begins by recognizing young people as citizens. This involves a shared responsibility "for creating a secure relational basis from which there is opportunity to explore diverse perspectives, through the involvement of youth in action projects, and the careful integration of meaning from the lived, essential components in building a personal synthesis of what is meaningful exercise of citizenship "(Menezes et al, 1999).
Additionally, research has shown that some groups are in particular risk of exclusion, as is the case with young migrants (Magalhães, 2008; Sardinha, 2007), more so because their opportunities for meaningful civic and political exercize are under the influence of the institutional and political opportunities of the host societies (Sardinha, 2007). This paper confronts the vision of policy makers about educational policy with some exploratory data on educational policies aimed at immigration, in order to understand better what has been its influence on the citizenship of young immigrants in Portugal.
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3: 77-101. Comissão Europeia (1997). Rapport: Accomplir l’europe par l’éducation et la formation. Luxembourg: Office des publications officielles des communautés européennes. IOM (2010) World migration report 2010. The future of migration: Building capacities for change. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, on line at: http://www.jcp.ge/iom/pdf/WMR_2010_ENGLISH.pdf, retrieved 31 August 2011. Magalhães, P. (2008). Os jovens e a política: um estudo do Centro de Sondagens e Estudos de Opinião da Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CESOP. Menezes, I. (2003). Civic education in Portugal. SOWI-Journal of Social Science Education, 2. Menezes, I., M. Mendes, C. Ferreira & C. Ribeiro (1999). Educação cívica: Reflexões a propósito da análise do currículo implementado e conseguido no domínio da cidadania em Portugal. Inovação, 12, 1, 47-58. Mayring, P. (2004). Qualitative Content Analysis in Flick, U., von Kardorff, E. & Steinke, I. (Ed.) (2004). A Companion to Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, 266-269. Roldão, M. C. (1999). Cidadania e currículo. Inovação, 12, 1, 9-26. Correia, J. A. (2001). A construção científica do político em educação. Educação, Sociedade & Culturas, 15, 19-43. Sardinha, J. (2007). Providing voices? Civic participation opportunities for immigrants in Portugal, University of Oldenburg, POLITIS Working paper 7. Torney-Purta, J., Lehman, R., Oswald, H. & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. Amsterdam: I.E.A. United Nations Development Programme (2009) Human development report 2009. Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and developments, on line at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf, retrieved 15 December 2010.
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